10 Class Civics Chapter 1 Power Sharing Notes
|Subject||Political Science (Civics)|
|Chapter Name||Power Sharing|
|Category||Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes|
Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Power Sharing Notes. here we will be learn about Story of Belgium , Story of Sri Lanka , Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka , Why power sharing is desirable? , Forms of power-sharing etc.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Power Sharing Notes
📚 Chapter = 1 📚
💠 Power Sharing💠
❇️ Power Sharing :-
🔹 A policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.
🔹 Power sharing among the three organs of state viz, Legislature, Executive and Judiciary is very important for proper functioning of the democracy.
❇️ Ethnic :-
🔹 A social division based on shared culture. People belonging to the same ethnic group, believe in their common descent because of similarities of physical type or of culture or both. They need not always have the same religion or nationality.
❇️ Majoritarianism :-
🔹 It means a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority, e.g., Sri Lanka opted for majoritarianism, in which majority Sinhalas rule the country.
❇️ Belgium :-
- Belgium is a small federal state in Western Europe, smaller in area than the state of Haryana.
- Having complex ethnic composition.
- Belgium shares borders with Netherlands, France, Germany and Luxembourg.
❇️ Ethnic structure of Belgian society :-
- The minority French speaking community (40%) was relatively rich and powerful while the Dutch-speaking community (59%) got the benefit of development and education much later.
- The capital of Belgium is Brussels, where 80% people speak French, while 20% speak Dutch language.
- The minority French speaking community was relatively rich and powerful.
❇️ minority French speaking community being relatively prosperous and powerful :-
- In Brussels, the capital of Belgium, the French speaking people are in majority .
- The power has been into the hands of French people for a longer period and benefitted them for economic development and education.
- The French speaking population was better read, more qualified and had access to more resources than the native Dutch Population .
- The French were part of an aristocracy of trades man and thus were financially strong.
❇️ Tensions between the French and Dutch Communities :-
🔹 The social disparity led to tensions between Dutch and French speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s.
❇️ Causes of conflict in Belgium :-
- The minority French speaking community was relatively rich and powerful.
- This was resented by the Dutch speaking community, who got the benefits of economic development and education much later.
- This led to tension between the Dutch and French speaking communities.
❇️ Steps taken to Remove Tensions in Belgium :-
- Equal number of Dutch and French- speaking ministers in central government.
- Wide powers to state governments; State governments are not subordinate to the central government.
- Separate government in Brussels in which both the communities have equal representation.
- “Community government’ elected by the particular language speaking community. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language- related issues.
❇️ Community Government :-
🔹 A social group of any size whose member resides in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.
❇️ Concept of ‘Community government’ of Belgium :-
🔹 The ‘community government’ is elected by the people belonging to one language community- Dutch, French and German speaking-no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.
❇️ Sri Lanka :-
- Sri Lanka is an island nation, just a few kilometers off the southern coast of India.
- It has a diverse population of about 2 crore people with 74% Sinhala Speakers and 18% Tamil Speakers.
- Like other nations in the South Asia region, Sri Lanka has a diverse population.
- Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948.
❇️ Sub-Groups of Tamils :-
🔹 Tamils have two subgroups namely :-
🔶 Sri Lankan Tamils :-
- Tamil natives of Sri Lanka are called Sri Lankan Tamils who constitute 13% of the population and are concentrated in the North and East of Sri Lanka.
- Most of Sinhala Speaking people are Buddhist, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims.
🔶 Indian Tamils :-
- The Tamilians whose forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial rule and settled in Sri Lanka are called Indian Tamils.
- They constitute 5% of the population.
❇️ Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka :-
- The Sinhala community of Sri Lanka dominated the minority Tamil people and practised majoritarian policy.
- In 1956, an Act was passed to recognise Sinhala as the only official language.
- The government followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
- The state protect and promote Buddhism.
- All these measures increased gradually the feeling of alienation among Sri Lankan Tamils.
❇️ The Struggles of Sri Lankan Tamils :-
🔹 The Sri Lankan Tamils demanded regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs and also to recognise Tamil as an official language.
🔹 But their demand was repeatedly denied. By the 1980s they organised many political organisation like LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) and the conflict turned into a Civil War.
❇️ factors led to a civil war in Sri Lanka :-
- Measures taken in majoritarianism gradually increased the feeling of alienation among Sri Lankan Tamils.
- They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests.
- As a result, the relations between Sinhalas and Tamil communities got strained over time.
- The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, regional autonomy and equality of opportunities in getting education and jobs.
- By the 1980s, several political organisations were formed demanding an independent Tamil Elam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
- The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war. As a result, thousands of people of both the communities were killed.
❇️ Civil War :-
🔹 A violent conflict between opposing groups within a country that becomes so intense that it appears like a war.
❇️ What kind of power sharing problems were faced by Belgians and Sri Lankans :-
🔹 In Belgium, the Dutch community could have taken advantage of its numeric majority and force its will on the Flemists and German-speaking population. This would have pushed the conflict among all these communities further.
🔹 This could lead to a very messy partition of the country; both the sides would claim control over Brussels. In Sri Lanka, the Sinhala community enjoyed an even bigger majority and could impose its will on the entire country.
❇️ What do we learn from the two stories of Belgium and Srilanka?
🔹 We learnt following things from the example of Belgium and Srilanka :-
- In Belgium the leaders realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the interests of different communities and religious.
- Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. It helped to avoid civic strife between two communities and a possible division of the country.
- Srilankan example shows us that if a majority community wants to force it dominance over others and refused to share power, it can undermine the unity of the country.
❇️ Different systems of power sharing in both of country :-
🔹 Both countries are democracies. Both have various ethnic groups living in their respective countries.
🔶 Differences :-
🔹 In Belgium, the leaders have realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangement for sharing the power.
🔹 Sri Lanka shows us a contrasting example. It shows us that if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others and refuses to share power, it undermine the unity of the
❇️ Reasons for the emergence of the idea of power sharing :-
🔹 The idea of power sharing has emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power.
🔹 For a long time, it was believed that all powers of a government must reside in one of persons located at one place.
🔹 It was felt that if the power to decide is person or group dispersed, it would not be possible to take quick decisions and to enforce them. But these notions have changed with the emergence of democracy.
❇️ Main principles of democracy :-
- One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power.
- In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-governance.
- In a democracy, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.
- Everyone has a voice in the shaping up of public policies.
❇️ Why power sharing is desirable :-
🔹 Two reasons which make power sharing desirable :-
🔶 Prudential Reason :-
- Reduces the possibility of conflicts between different social groups. Social conflicts led to violence, political instability.
- Prevents groups from overstepping their rights to enhance their own power.
- No single group can subvert the constitution power sharing writes the nation.
- When power is not shared, it oppressed the minority and even the majority.
🔶 Moral Reason :-
- It is the very spirit of democracy.
- A democratic rule involves it with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects.
- A legitimate government is the one where citizens acquire a role in the system through participation.
❇️ Forms of Power Sharing :-
- Among different organs of government.
- Among governments at different levels.
- Among different social groups.
- By the way of political parties, pressure groups and movements.
🔶 Power shared among different organs of the government :-
- In it power is shared among legislature, executive and Judiciary.
- It is also called horizantal distribution of power because all these organs are placed at the same level.
- Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited powers.
- Each organs checks the offers, which results in the balance of various institution
🔶 Power shared among Governments at different levels :-
- There is a Government for the entire country, such a Government is called federal Government.
- In India we refer to it as Central or Union Government.
- The Government at provincial or regional level is called state Government in India.
- In India Government is divided at the central level, state level and local level.
- It is called vertical division of power as power is divided among higher and lower levels of Governments.
🔶 Power shared among different social groups :-
- This type of arrangement is made to give space in the Government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise feel alienated from the Government.
- This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.
- In India, we have the system of reserved constituencies in the assemblies and the Parliament of one country.
- Community Government in Belgium is a good example.
🔶 Power shared among political parties, pressure groups and moments :-
- In a democracy, the citizen must have freedom to choose among various contenders for power.
- When there is competition, it ensures that power does not remain in one hand.
- In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. This type of Government is called ‘Coalition Government’.
- Many interest groups like traders, businessmen, farmers, industrial workers, also have a share in governmental power either way, through participation and influencing decision making process.
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