10 Class Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity Notes
|Subject||Political Science (Civics)|
|Chapter Name||Democracy and Diversity|
|Category||Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes|
Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity Notes. here we will be learn about the Civil Rights Movement in America, Black Power Movement, African-American , Racism, Apartheid, Social Diversity, Origin of Social Discrimination, Social Division etc.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity Notes
📚 Chapter = 3 📚
💠 Democracy and Diversity💠
❇️ Democracy :-
🔹 A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state , typically through elected representatives.
❇️ Diversity :-
🔹 The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique and recognizing our individual differences.
❇️ Civil Rights Movements :-
🔹 Its purpose was to eliminate race-based discrimination against Afro-Americans.
🔹 The civil rights movement was a struggle by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to achieve Civil Rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote , the right of equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free of racial discrimination.
❇️ Incident of two US athletes who protested at Mexico Olympics in 1968 :-
🔹 In the 1968 olympics, Smith and Carles won the gold and bronze medals respectively. They received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes, to represent Black poverty.
🔹 With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States.
❇️ Why did Smith wear a black scarf around his neck and Carlos a string of beads during medal ceremony at Mexico city in 1968 ?
🔹 Smith wore a black scarf around his neck to represent black pride and Carlos wore a string of beads to commemorate black people who had been killed.
❇️ African-American :-
🔹 The descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th century and easly 19th century.
❇️ The Black Power :-
🔹 The black power movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975, which was a more militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.
❇️ Discrimination :-
🔹 The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.
❇️ Social Difference :-
🔹 Social Differences are social identities based on accident of birth or on individual choices.
❇️ Social Divisions :-
🔹 They are categories such as class, race, gender and geographic location, that indicate differences in lifestyle and experience.
❇️ Reasons of origins of social differences :-
🔶 Based on accident of birth: :-
🔹 Normally, we don’t choose to belong to one community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it.
🔹 We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives.
🔶 Based on our choices :-
🔹 Some of the differences are based on our choices. For example, religion, occupation, sports etc.
🔹 Some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Some people choose to follow a particular religion. Most of us choose which occupation to take up.
🔶 Based on economic status :-
🔹 Economic status can also be responsible for social differences. Rich and poor people belonging to the same community or religion often do not keep close relations with each other as they feel that they are very different.
❇️ Apartheid :-
🔹 A policy or system of segregation or dis- crimination on ground of race.
❇️ Racisim :-
🔹 Discrimination one the basis of colour of skin.
❇️ Overlapping :-
🔹 Social divisions takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences. Overlapping social differences create possiblities of dep social divisions and tensions.
❇️ Cross Cutting :-
🔹 It exists when groups on one cleavage overlap among groups on another cleavage. ‘Cleavages’ include such things as racial, political, religious divisions in society.
❇️ Difference between Overlapping and Cross Cutting :-
|A social difference overlaps with another difference.||A social difference coss-cuts another difference.|
|People start feeling that they belong to different communities.||The group can share a common interest on one issue but are likely to be in different sides on different issues.|
|These creates possibilities of deep social divisions.||These are easier to accommodate.|
|The difference between Blacks and the white in USA is an example of overlapping difference because the Blacks are poor, homeless and discriminated.||In Netherlands, Class and religion tend to cut across each other as Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich.|
❇️ Homogeneous society :-
🔹 Homogeneous society is a kinds of society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences.
❇️ Migrant :-
🔹 Anybody who shifts from one region of country to another region within a country or to another country, usually for work or other economic opportunities.
❇️ Politics of Social Division :-
- Social divisions lead to political divisions that result in conflicts and violence.
- Effect of social divisions on voting behaviour.
❇️ How do social divisions affect politics?
🔹 An individual’s or a party’s success in politics depends upon its support and influence among the masses.
🔹 This leads to competition among various individuals and parties to gain popularity among the masses and if they try to compete by exploiting some existing social divisions whereby turning social divisions into political divisions.
🔹 This may lead to conflict and even violence among social and political communities.
❇️ Three Determinants :-
- How people perceive their identities
- How Political leaders raise the demands
- How government reacts to the demands
❇️ Factors Determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions :-
🔹 The three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions :-
🔶 How people perceive their identities :-
- If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.
- It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with national identity. This helps them to stay together.
- An Indian thinks of himself as an Indian as well as belongs to a particular state or a language group or religious community.
🔶 Depends on how political leaders raise the demand of any committee :-
- It is easier to accommodate demands of any community.
- It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
- Example :- Demand for only ‘Sinhalas’ was at the cost of interest and identity of Tamil Community in Sri Lanka.
🔶 Depends on how the govt. reacts to the demands of different groups :-
- If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions became less threatening for the country.
- But if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite.
- Such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration.
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