Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste Notes

10 Class Civics Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectPolitical Science (Civics)
Chapter Chapter 4
Chapter NameGender, Religion and Caste 
CategoryClass 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste Notes. here we will be learn about Gender Division of Labour, Feminists, Feminist Movements, Patriarchal Society , Family Law, Communalism, Secularism, Secular state, Casteism etc.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender, Religion and Caste Notes

📚 Chapter = 4 📚
💠 Gender, Religion and Caste💠

❇️ Gender division :-

🔹 Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division seen everywhere, but rarely recognised in the study of politics. 

🔹 It tends to be understood as natural and unchangeable. However, it is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.

❇️ Sexual division of labour :-

🔹 A system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organised by them through the domestic helpers. 

❇️ Feminist :-

🔹 A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and man.

❇️ Feminist movements :-

🔹 Feminist movements aim at equal rights and opportunities for women and men. More radical women’s movements aimed at equality, both in personal and family life.

❇️ Patriarchy :-

🔹 A system of society in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

❇️ Patriarchal society :- 

🔹 A patriarchal society is essentially male dominated. The line of descent is traced through the father. Men are valued more in terms of work they do and the place they hold in society. This gives them more power than women.

❇️ Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways: :-

🔶 Literacy Rate :- The literacy rate among women is 54% as compared to the 76% among men.

🔶 Jobs :- A women works an hour more than a man on an average, yet her work is neither valued paid.

🔶 Wages :- Though there is an Equal Wages Act which states that women should be paid equal wages for equal work, women are still paid less for the same work. 

🔶 Sex Ratio :- Most parents prefer boy children to girl children. Female infanticide and feticide are common in our country. This has resulted in unfavourable sex ratio.

🔶 Social Evil :- Society in general and urban centres in particular, is not safe for women. Dowry harassment, physical abuse, sexual harassment are routine tales.

❇️ Women’s political representation :-

  • The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha has touched 14.36 per cent of its total strength for the first time in 2019. 
  • Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 per cent. 

❇️ What can be done to improve the representation of women in legislature?

  • To improve the representation of women in legislature reservation of seats for women should be legally binding like panchayat. 
  • In panchayat 1/3 seats are reseved for women. 
  • some states where 50% seats are already reserved for women are Bihar, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.

❇️ Schemes and strategies have been taken up by the Govt of India for women empowerment :-

  • Act prohibiting the practice of sati 
  • The Hindu widow remarriage act. 
  • The married women’s property act.
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Creche scheme (for working women) 
  • Support to training and employment program for women. 
  • Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojna.
  • Kishori Shakti Yojna.
  • The Dowry prohibition Act. 
  • Protection of women from Domestic voilation Act, 2005.
  • The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act. 
  • The Equal Renumeration Act.

❇️ Religion, Communalism and Politics :-

✳️ Religion Differences in Politics :-

🔹 Human rights activists allege that people from minority religious community suffer a lot whenever there is communal violence. 

🔶 Gandhi ji Said :- Religion can never be, seperated From politics. Buit meant , moral values that Form all Religions. 

🔶 Human Rights Groups Says :- Most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from Religious Minorities.

🔶 women Movements :- Family Laws of all Religious discriminate against women.

❇️ Statement :- Religion can never be separated from politics :-

🔹 According to Gandhi ji religion was not related to any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam but moral values that informs all religions. Politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.

❇️ Family laws :-

🔹 Those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption etc.

❇️ Communalism :-

🔹 A belief in which the followers of a particular religion believe that their religion is superior over other religion.

❇️ Communal Politics :-

🔹 It is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community. 

❇️ How Communal Politics is preferred?

  • Communalism involves thinking that the followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. 
  • Their fundamental interests are the same. 
  • Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life. 
  • It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community. 
  • If the followers of different religions have some commonalities, these are superficial and immaterial. 
  • Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict. 

❇️ Communalism can take various forms in politics :-

  • religious prejudices,stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of own’s religion over other religion. 
  • A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. 
  • Political mobilisation on religious lines. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. 
  • Most ugly form of communalism is communal violence,riots and massacre.

❇️ Effect of Communalism on Politics :-

  • Religion rather than ability becomes the criteria to choose candidates for election. 
  • People prefer to caste votes in favour of candidates of their own religion. 
  • Communalism can turn ugly and lead to violence, massacre and riots. 
  • Sometimes, the voters polarise on the communal line and caste their votes accordingly.

❇️ Measures to Combat Communalism in India :- 

🔹 Communalism can be combated through the following methods :- 

  • Law should ban parties using religion in politics. 
  • Socio-economic backwardness of the country should be removed so that people are not used as vote banks.
  • Political parties should rise above narrow gains and stop fanning communal passions. 
  • Educational institutions should inculcate secular values among students. 
  • The Election Commission should prepare a code of conduct for parties so that religion is not used in politics. 
  • Mass media, TV, radio, NGOS and people themselves should launch an enlightenment movement so that public opinion is created against communal riots.

❇️ Secular state :-

🔹 A state that has no official religion and ensures equal status to all religious is called secular state. 

❇️ Constitutional provisions that make Indian a secular state :-

🔹Constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are :- 

  • There is no official religion for the Indian state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and that of Islam in Pakistan. 
  • The constitution provides freedom to all individuals and communities to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any particular religion. 
  • The constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion. 
  • Our constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religions in order to ensure quality within religious communities.

❇️ Main features of secular state in India :-

  • No official religions in India. 
  • Freedom of religion in India means the freedom of religion to both individuals and coomunities. 
  • The constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religions.

❇️ Urbanisation :-

🔹 Shift of population from rural areas to urban areas.

❇️ Occupational mobility :-

🔹 Shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors.

❇️ Caste hierarchy :-

🔹 A ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the highest’ to the lowest’ castes.

❇️ Reason behind change in caste and caste system in modern India :-

🔹 Caste and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes became of :- 

  • Economic development 
  • Large scale urbanisation 
  • Growth of Literacy and education
  • Ocupational Mobility.
  • Weakning of the position of landlords in the village.

❇️ Reasons which have contributed to changes in caste and caste system in India :-

🔹 The following reasons have contributed to changes in the caste system :-

  • Efforts of political leaders and social reformers like Gandhi Ji and B. R. Ambedkar who advocated and worked to establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent. 
  • Socio-economic reasons like urbanisation, growth of literacy and education. Occupational mobility, weakening of landlord’s position in the village have led to the breaking down of caste hierarchy. .
  • The constitution of India prohibits any caste-based discrimination that lays down the foundations of policies to end the injustices of the caste system. 

❇️ Positive impact of casteism with regard to political expression :-

  • With the economic development, large scale urbanisation growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords in the village, the old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down. 
  • The constitution has prohibited any caste based discrimination and laid the foundation of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system. 

❇️ Negative impacts of Casteism with regard to political expression :-

  • When parties choose candidates in election, they keep in mind the caste imposition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to get necessary support win elections. 
  • Political parties and candidates in elections make appeal to caste sentiments to muster support.

❇️ Caste in politics :-

🔹 As in the case of communalism, casteism is rooted in the belief that caste is the sole basis of social community. 

🔹 Caste is one aspect of our experience but it is not the only relevant or the most important aspect. 

❇️ Caste can take various form in politics :-

🔹 The caste can take following forms in politics :-

  • Sometimes candidates are chosen on the basis of their caste. When political parties choose candidates, they keep in mind the caste composition of their voters.
  • In many places, voters on the basis of caste and fail to choose suitable candidates. 
  • When a government is formed after elections, political parties take care that different castes are represented in the government.
  • Political parties appeal to caste sentiments during election. 
  • To gain support political parties, raise caste based issues during elections. 
  • The castes considered inferior or low until now have been made conscious of their rights by the political parties.

❇️ Other factors than the caste which play a decisive role at the time of the election :-

🔹 Other than caste some factors which play a decisive role at the time of election :- 

  • Money 
  • Power 
  • Prestige 
  • Religion 
  • Policies of the political parties etc.

❇️ Politics influences the caste system and caste identities :-

  • Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighbouring castes or sub castes which were earlier excluded from it. 
  • Castes group are required to enter into a coalition with other castes. 
  • Newkind of castes group have come up in the political arena like backward and forward caste groups.

❇️ How exclusive attention to caste can produce negative results in politics? 

  • Politics based on caste identity alone is not very healthy in a democracy. 
  • can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, development and corruption. 
  • Caste division leads to tensions,conflicts and even violence.
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