10 Class Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Notes
|Subject||Political Science (Civics)|
|Chapter Name||Popular Struggles and Movements|
|Category||Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes|
Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Notes. here we will be learn about Movement for democracy in Nepal , Bolivia’s Water War , Pressure Groups , FEDECOR , Sectional Interest Groups , Public Interest Groups , BAMCEF , Movement Groups , Issue Specific Movements , Generic Movement , NAPM etc.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements Notes
📚 Chapter = 5 📚
💠 Popular Struggles and Movements💠
💠 Movement for democracy in Nepal 💠
❇️ Story of Nepal :-
🔹 In the decade of 1990s democracy was established in Nepal.
🔹 Although the king formally remained the head of the state the real power was exercised by popularly elected representatives.
🔹 After the mysterious massacre of the Nepal royal family in 2001 King Gyanendra was not prepared to accept the democratic rule.
🔹 In February 2005 the king dismissed the then Prime Minister and dissolve the Parliament.
❇️ Struggle for Democracy in Nepal :-
- Nepal witnessed an extra ordinary popular movement in April 2006 whose aim was restoring democracy.
- All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance(SPA).
- A four day strike was called in Kathmandu, the country’s capital.
- This protest soon turned into an indefinite strain which Maoist insurgents and various other organization join hands.
- People defied curfew and took to the streets. Security forces bowed to public pressure.
- Ultimately king was forced to concede all the demands.
- Girija Prashad Koirala was appointed as the interim Prime Minister.
- The parliament was restored and passed many laws taking away most of the powers of the king.
- The SPA and the Maoists came to an understanding about the formation of constituent Assembly.
❇️ The purpose of the people’s struggle of Nepal :-
🔹 The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy.
🔹 The Struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of country’s politics.
❇️ Maoists :-
🔹 Those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese Revolution. They seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution so as to establish the rule of the peasants and workers.
❇️ Bolivia’s Water War :-
- Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America.
- The world bank pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply.
- The Government sold these rights for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company(MNC) which immediately increased the price of water by four times.
- Many people received monthly water bill of Rs 1000 in a country where average income is around 5000 a month.
- In January 2000 a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders organised a successful four day general strike
- The police resorted to brutal repression when the strike was started again.
- But the power of people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government concede to all the demands of the protesters.
- The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.
❇️ The purpose of the people’s struggle of Bolivia’s :-
🔹 In the people’s struggle of Bolivia, an elected and democratic government was forced to accept the demand of the people.
🔹 The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy.
❇️ Similarities and inequalities of popular struggle in Bolivia and Nepal :-
🔶 Similarities :-
- Both the countries were Democratic.
- Popular Struggles get success in both the countries.
- Both the countries are example for Democratic Struggle.
- These two countries are example of Political Struggle.
🔶 Inequality :-
- The struggle of Nepal was based on the politics of the country.
- The struggle of Bolivia is related to a particular policy.
❇️ Pressure Groups :-
🔹 These are the organizations that attempt to influence government politics. For examples :- All India farmers Association, All India Trade Union etc.
❇️ FEDECOR :-
🔹 The organization which led the water revolution in Bolivia. It comprised of local professionals including engineers and environmentalists and were supported by federations of farmers and confederations of factory workers’ union, middle class students and city’s growing population of homeless street children.
❇️ Differentiate between pressure group and Political Parties :-
|Political Parties||Pressure Groups|
|They have direct control or share in political power.||They do not have share in the government.|
|These are completely organized.||Not so organized.|
|The sphere of influence is extended till national level.||Influence area is limited.|
|Its goals are of longer duration.||Goals are for shorter period.|
❇️ Working of Pressure Groups :-
- They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activity by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings, file petitions etc.
- They often organize protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programmes in order to force the government to take note of their demands.
- Participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.
- Act as an extended arm of political parties.
- Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.
- In most cases the relationship between parties and interest groups is not so direct.
❇️ Sectional Interest Groups :-
🔹 The groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of a society is called sectional interest groups.
🔶 Function of Sectional Interest Groups :-
- They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
- They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.
- Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members not society in general.
❇️ Public Interest Groups :-
🔹 Public interest groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests.
🔶 Function of Public Interest Groups :-
- It aims to help groups other than their own members.
- They represent some common interests that needs to be defended.
- The members of the organisation may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents.
- For example, A group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage.
- For example, BAMCEF
❇️ BAMCEF :-
🔹 The all India Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation. It is an organisation of employees from Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other backward classes and the minority communities in India.
❇️ Movement Groups :-
🔹 Movement Groups are of two types: Issue specific and Generic Movements.
❇️ Issue Specific Movements :-
- They achieve a single objective-within a limited timeframe.
- There is a clear leadership.
- They have some sort of an organization Example :- organizational features of order, stability leadership etc., are visible in them.
- Their active life is usually short, e.g., The Nepalese Movement for Democracy.
❇️ Generic Movement :-
- They are more general movements that seek to achieve a broad goal in the long term.
- They have independent leadership.
- There is no single organization that controls or guides such movements.
❇️ What is NAPM?
🔹 NAPM stands for National Alliance for Peoples’ Movements. It is association of organisations which coordinates the activities of a large number of peoples’ movements in India.
❇️ How pressure groups influence Politics :-
- They indirectly help the candidate.
- To create the pressure on government they organized the strike and demonstration.
- To get support and sympathy of public they organize various functions.
❇️ The role of pressure groups and movements in deepening Democracy :-
- It reminds the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
- Put pressure on the rulers for the unhealthy activities.
- It performs a useful role of countering undue influence of the rich and powerful people.
- One single group cannot achieve dominance over society.
- The government gets to hear about what different sections of the population want.
- This leads to a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests.
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