Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties Notes

10 Class Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectPolitical Science (Civics)
Chapter Chapter 6
Chapter NamePolitical Parties
CategoryClass 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties Notes. here we will be learn about Political Party, Functions of Political Party, Role of Opposition in Democracy, Party Systems, Coalition Government, National Party, Regional Party etc.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties Notes

📚 Chapter = 6 📚
💠 Political Parties💠

❇️ Political Parties :-

🔹 A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

❇️ Components of political party :-

🔹 A political party has following three components :-

  • The leaders 
  • The active members 
  • The followers

❇️ Partisan :-

🔹 A person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction. Partisanship is marked by a tendency to take a side and inability to take a balanced view on an issue.

❇️ Functions of Political Parties :- 

  • To contest elections 
  • Make policies and programmes 
  • Make laws
  • Run Government 
  • Play role of opposition 
  • Launch movements for the resolution 
  • Introduce welfare schemes 
  • Shape public opinion

❇️ Functions of Opposition Political Parties are :-

🔹 Three functions of Opposition Political Parties are :-

  • The main function of an Opposition Party is to force the ruling party or the party in power to function properly and fulfill their promises made during the electoral campaign. 
  • They are very important for any bill to pass or any law to implement in the House of the Legislature. 
  • Because in a democracy such as India, a complete majority is not possible therefore, opposition parties also hold power in certain areas and are equally important.

❇️ Necessity of Political Partics :-

  • Modern democracies cannot exist without political parties.
  • Without parties every candidate in the elections will be independent so no one will be able to make any promises to people about any major policy change. 
  • Government may be formed but its utility will remain ever uncertain. 
  • Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in the locality. 
  • No one will be responsible for how the country will be run.

❇️ How many parties should we have? 

🔹 In a democracy, any group of citizens is free to form the political party. Therefore, there are a large number of political parties in each country. More than 750 parties registered with the Election Commission of India.

❇️ Types of Party Systems :-

🔹 The different countries around the world opt different party systems. Broadly, political party system can be divided into following three categories :-

  • One party system 
  • Two party system 
  • Multiparty system

🔶 One-Party System :- 

  • In this party system, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. 
  • For example :- China has one-party system. 
  • This system is not a good option for democracy because it does not provide a fair chance for competing parties to gain power.

🔶 Two-Party System :-

  • In this party system, two parties have a serious chance to win majority and form government. 
  • The power usually changes between two main parties. 
  • The United States of America and United Kingdom are the examples of two-party system. 

🔶 Multi-Party System :-

  • In this party system, more than two political parties contest election to gain power. 
  • In India, there is a multi-party system with more than 750 parties registered by the Election Commission of India.
  • It allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

❇️ Alliance or Front :-

🔹 When several parties in a multi party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power it is called an alliance or front.

❇️ Types of Political Parties :-

🔹 Democracies that follow a federal system all over the world tend to have two kinds of political parties :-

  • State Parties 
  • National Parties

🔹 In India, there are both National and State parties. Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission.

❇️ State Parties :-

🔹 A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State party.

❇️ National Parties :-

🔹 A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four States and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a National party.

❇️ Difference between Natioal parties and State Political Parties :-

National Political PartiesState Political Parties 
Present in several or all federal units of the federation.Parties which are present in few federal units only. 
A party that secures at least 6% of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in 4 states. A party that secures at least 6% of the total votes in an election to the Legislative assembly of a state 
Win at least 4 seats in Lok Sabha.Wins at least 2 seats in the legislative assembly of a state.

❇️ Some National Political Parties of India :-

🔹 According to this classification, there were seven recognised national parties in the country in 2019. These are :-

  • All India Trinamool Congress
  • Bahujan Samaj Party
  • Bharatiya Janata Party
  • Communist Party of India
  • Communist Party of Indian-Marxist
  • Indian National Congress  
  • Nationalist Congress Party

✴️ All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) :-

  • It was formed on 1st January, 1998 under the leadership of Mamta Banerjee. 
  • This party is recognised as a National Party in 2016. The party symbol is flowers and grass. 
  • It has its presence in West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura. 

✴️ Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) :- 

  • Created in 1980, it champions the socio-religious values of India. 
  • Since its formation, the BJP has been a strong rival of the Indian National Congress. 
  • It is now in government, and the leading party within the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). 

✴️ Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) :- 

  • The Bahujan Samaj Party is a party formed to represent the OBCS, SCs, STs and religious minorities, those at the bottom of India’s caste system. 
  • The BSP was formed in 1984 by two leaders, Kanshiram and Mayawati. 
  • It draws inspiration from the teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker. 

✴️ Communist Party of India (CPI) :-

  • It was formed in 1925, believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy. 
  • It is opposed to the forces of communalism and secessionism. 
  • It believes that parliamentary democracy helps the interests of farmers, the working class, and the poor. 

✴️ Communist Party of India: Marxist (CPI-M) :- 

  • The Communist Party of India (Marxist), usually known as CPI-M, split from the Communist Party of India in 1964. 
  • It believes in Marxism-Leninism and supports socialism, secularism and democracy. 
  • It opposes imperialism and communalism. 
  • Its supporters are farmers, agricultural labourers and intelligentsia.

✴️ Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) :- 

  • It was formed on May 25, 1999, by Sharad Pawar, P.A. Sangma and Tariq Anwar after they were thrown out of the Congress Party. 
  • NCP has major support in Maharashtra state. 
  • The NCP claims that it supports democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice and federalism.

✴️ Indian National Congress (INC) :-

  • Indian National Congress (INC) Founded in 1885. After Independence, it became free India’s premier political party. 
  • In the first five general elections held, the Congress virtually controlled the politics of the country. 

❇️ State or Regional Political Parties :-

🔹 Regional parties need not be regional in their ideology or outlook. Some of these parties are all India parties that happen to have succeeded only in some states.

🔹 Parties like the Samajwadi Party, (Janata Dal-United) Samta Party and Rashtriya Janata Dal have a national-level political organisation with units in several states. 

🔹 Some of these parties like Biju Janata Dal, Sikkim Democratic Front and Mizo National Front are conscious about their state identity.

❇️ Regional party :-

🔹 All parties, other than the six national parties, are classified as state parties by the Election Commission of India. They are also called regional parties.

❇️ Coalition government :-

🔹 When no party gets a clear majority in elections, to more political run the government in collaboration with the common programme of development is known as coalition government. 

🔹 At central level, India had a long history of coalition government sicne 1989 to 2014. 

❇️ Role of coatition governemnt in Indian Democracy :-

  • Regional party plays important role in coalition governments, and it helps to strengthen democracy. 
  • Due to coalition government now have to listen to the voices all areas due to coalition government. 
  • The central government now have to listan to the voices of all areas due to coalition government.

❇️ Challenges to Political Parties :-

  • Lack of internal democracy
  • Dynastic succession 
  • Growing influence of money and mesclepower
  • Lack of a meaning fulchoice

🔶 Lack of Internal Democracy :- 

  • Power concentrated in the hands of one or few leaders at the top. 
  • No organisational meetings. No keeping of membership registers. 
  • No internal, regular elections. 
  • Ordinary members do not have access to information. So, they cannot influence decisions. 
  • Disagreement with the leadership leads to ouster from the party.

🔶 Dynastic succession :- 

  • Leaders on top have an unfair advantage to favour people close to them or family members. 
  • Top positions controlled by family members of one family in most parties. 
  • Bad for democracy. 
  • Tendency is seen all over the world, even in the older democracies. 

🔶 Money and muscle power :- 

  • During election’s this power is very visible. 
  • Candidates who can raise money are nominated. 
  • Rich people and companies who give funds have an influence on policies.

🔶 Meaningful choice :- 

  • There is not much difference in ideology among parties. Example: Labour Party and Conservative Party of Britain. They only differ on details of implementation rather than fundamental principles. 
  • In India also there is not much difference among parties on economic issues.

❇️ How can parties be reformed?

🔶 Recent efforts :-

  • Anti defection law
  • Filing an affidavit giving details of property and criminal proceedings 
  • Mandatory organisational elections and IT returus

🔶 Suggestions for future :-

  • Mandatory to make recore of the members.
  • Reserved seats for woner in every party. 
  • State funding of elections.
  • Increasing peoples particitions.

❇️ How can common man help to improve political Parties?

  • By promoting Public Participation. 
  • By pressuring on Political parties. 
  • Candidate with criminal background should be defeated in Elections. 
  • Candidate with clean image should be promoted by Public.

❇️ Defection :-

🔹 Changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected to a different party. 

❇️ Affidavit :-

🔹 A signed document submitted to an officer where a person makes a sworn statement regarding his/her personal information.

❇️ State Funding of Elections :-

🔹 The government should give parties money to support their election expenses.

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