Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy Notes

10 Class Civics Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectPolitical Science (Civics)
Chapter Chapter 7
Chapter NameOutcomes of Democracy
CategoryClass 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy Notes. here we will be learn about democracy, transparency, accountability, legitimate government, economic growth and development, reduction of inequality and poverty etc.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy Notes

📚 Chapter = 7 📚
💠 Outcomes of Democracy💠

❇️ Democracy :-

🔹 Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.

❇️ Dictatorship :-

🔹 An autocratic form of absolute rule by leadership unrestricted by law, constitution or other social and political factors.

❇️ How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?

🔹 The expected and actual outcomes of democracy can be assessed by quality of government, economic well-being, inequality, social differences, freedom and dignity. 

❇️ How are democratic governments better than other forms of governments :-

🔹 Democracy is always preferable and superior to any other form of government because of the following reasons :-

  • promotes equality among citizens 
  • enhances the dignity of an individual 
  • improves the quality of decision-making 
  • provides a method to resolve conflicts 
  • allows room to correct mistakes
  • Democracy provides and accountable, responsive and legitimate government.

❇️ Political Outcomes :-

🔹 The political outcomes of democracy are to produce accountable, responsive and legitimate government.

❇️ Is the Democratic government efficient? Is it effective?

🔹 Imagine that other forms of government may take decisions very fast. But it may take decisions that are not accepted by the people and may, therefore, face problems. 

🔹 Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place.

🔹 In contrast, the democratic government will take more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision. 

🔹 But because it has followed procedures, its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective. 

🔹 So, the cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.

❇️ Transparency :-

🔹 A citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures can find this out. She has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency.

❇️ Accountability :-

🔹 An accountable government is answerable to its citizens. It is responsible for all the decisions it makes on behalf of its citizens.

❇️ Legitimate Government :-

🔹 Legitimate government is a government under which law and action of the government are revealed to the people and government function in a transparent manner.

❇️ How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?

🔹 Democracy produces an accountable, responsive and legitimate government in the following ways :- 

  • Democratic government is responsible to the people. It cares about the opinions, need and expectations of the people. 
  • In a democratic government, people have the right to choose their leaders and have control over their leaders. 
  • In a democratic government, citizens are able to participate in decisions making. In this way the basic outcome of democracy is that it produces a government, accountable to the citizens. 
  • Democracy produces legitimate government because after every four or five years, the representatives of the people are elected by secret ballot. The majority party forms government which works according to the constitution.

❇️ How do democratic governments ensure transparency :-

  • Democratic govt, make sure that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. 
  • They allow every citizen to participate in decision-making, directly or indirectly.
  • Citizens can examine and find out about the correctness of the procedure of decision-making.
  • They are accountable to the’people. They have the right to change the government in the next general elections. 
  • They provide people with power to demand answers from their representatives and reduce the chances of corruption.

❇️ Differences between democratic and non-democratic governments in the decision making process :-

Democratic governmentsnon-Democratic governments
democratic government is slow. The decision making process in non-democratic government is quick.
democratic government is slow. In non-democratic government implementation of the decisions is fast 
democratic governments have to follow certain procedures. Non-democratic government do not follow any fixed procedure. 
Democratic government is based on deliberation and negotiation. non-democratic government do not bother about such deliberation or public opinion.

❇️ Economic Outcomes :-

🔹 Economic growth, development, reduction of poverty and inequality are the prominent economic outcomes of democracy.

❇️ factors that determine the economic growth of a country :-

🔹 The factors that determine the economic growth of a country are :-

  • Population 
  • Size 
  • Natural Resources 
  • Relationship with other countries 
  • Global situation 
  • Geographic position 
  • Economic policies of the government.

❇️ Economic growth and development :-

🔹 Economic development depends on several factors-country’s population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country, etc. 

🔹 However, the difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible.

🔹 Overall, we cannot say that democracy is a guarantee of economic development. But we can expect democracy not to lag behind dictatorships in economic development.

❇️ Democracy reduces economic inequality and poverty :-

🔹 Democracies have growing economic inequalities. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a lion’s share of wealth and those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon and find it very difficult to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health.

🔹 Democratically elected governments address the question of poverty by making various welfare schemes to remove poverty. 

🔹 Democracies not only make welfare schemes but also give reservations for socially and economically backward people in jobs, elections and educational institutions. 

❇️ Four ways in which democracies have been able to reduce inequality and poverty :-

  • It ensures political equality by giving equal voting rights to every citizen, 
  • It provides a suitable environment for group activism which leads to equal opportunity to raise the concerns of poor people. 
  • It supports the redistributive mechanism for transferring economic benefits on the basis of requirement of any section of society. 
  • It protects the rights of every citizen without discrimination on the basis of economic status ensuring social equality.

❇️ Social Outcomes :-

🔹 The social outcomes of a democracy should be accommodating social diversity and providing dignity and freedom to the citizens.

❇️ Democracy accommodates social diversity :-

🔹 Democracies usually develop a procedure to accommodate various social groups. This reduces the possibility of social tensions becoming explosive or violent. 

🔹 No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But democracy is best to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts.

❇️ Democracy accommodates social diversities in the following ways :-

🔹 Democracy develops competitive attitudes. Democracy develops a procedure to conduct competition among social classes. This reduces the possibility of conflicts and social tensions. 

🔹 Democracy evolves mechanisms to negotiate : No Society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups, but we can certainly learn to respect these differences. Democracies are best suited to produce this outcome.

❇️ Dignity and Freedom of the Citizens :- 

🔹 Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government for promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.

🔹 Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings. Sometimes conflict arises among individual as they feel that they are not treated with due respect. 

🔹 The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracies throughout the world have recognised and achieved this (respect and freedom) in various degrees. But it is not a simple matter to recognise that all individuals are equal.

❇️ Dignity and Freedom of Women :-

🔹 The long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect and equal treatment of women are necessary for democratic societies. 

🔹 But women are not always treated with respect. Once the respect’ is recognised, it becomes easier for women to struggle for it. 

🔹 In a non-democratic set-up, the principle of individual freedom and dignity sometimes have no legal force.

❇️ Dignity and Freedom of Disadvantaged Groups :-

🔹 Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. 

🔹 There are still cases of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. It is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens to value their democratic rights.

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