10 Class Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development Notes
|Chapter Name||Resources and Development|
|Category||Class 10 Geography Notes|
Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development Notes. here we will be learn about Resources , Classification of Resources , Development of Resources , Resource Planning , Land Resources , Land Use Pattern in India , Land Degradation and Conservation measures , Soil as a Resource , Classification of Soils , Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation etc.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resources and Development Notes
📚 Chapter = 1 📚
💠 Resources and Development💠
❇️ Resource :-
🔹 Everything available in our environment that can be used to satisfy our needs, which is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as resource.
❇️ TYPES OF RESOURCES :-
🔹 These resources can be classified in the following ways :-
- (a) On the basis of origin :-
- ( I ) Biotic Resources
- ( II ) Abiotic Resources
- (b) On the basis of exhaustibility :-
- ( I ) Renewable resources
- ( II ) Non Renewable Resources
- (c) On the basis of ownership :-
- ( I ) Individual resources
- ( II ) Community Owned Resources
- ( III ) National Resources
- ( IV ) International resources
- (d) On the basis of status of development :-
- ( I ) potential Resources
- ( II ) developed Resources
- ( III ) stock
- ( IV ) reserves
❇️ Types of Resource :-
🔹 Resources can be classified on the basis of origin, exhaustibility, ownership and the status of development.
✳️ On the basis of origin :- resources are of two types, viz., biotic resources and abiotic resources.
🔶 Biotic resources :- Biotic resources are obtained from biosphere and have life, Example :- human beings, livestock, flora and fauna, fisheries etc.
🔶 Abiotic resources :- Abiotic resources are composed of non-living things. Example :- rocks and metals.
✳️ On the basis of exhaustibility :- resources are renewable and non-renewable.
🔶 Renewable resources :- The Resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources. Example :- Solar and Wind
🔶 Non Renewable Resources :- These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
✳️ On the basis of ownership :- resources are individual, community owned, national and international resources.
🔶 Individual resources :- Resources are owned Privately by indiividuals known as Individuals resources. Example :- plantation, pasture land, farmland, etc.
🔶 Community Owned Resources :- There are resources which are accessible to all members of the community known as Community owned resources. Example :- grazing ground, burial grounds, etc.
🔶 National Resources :- All the resources within the political boundaries and oceanic area known as National Resources. Example :- canal, roadways, railways, etc.
🔶 International resources :- The International Resources Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aim to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
✳️ On the basis of the status of development :- resources are potential, developed, stocks and reserves.
🔶 Potential resources :- known as Potential Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised Resources.
🔶 Developed resources :- Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation known as Developed Resources. Example :- coal and petroleum.
🔶 Stock :- Materials in the appropriate technology to environement which have potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the access these is known as Stock. Example :- hydrogen in water.
🔶 Reserve :- Reserve the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know- how’ but their use has not been started. Example :- river water.
❇️ Development of Resources :-
🔹 Resources are vital for human survival and for maintaining quality of life. But over utilisation of resources has led to the serious global problems like global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
🔹 An equal distribution of resources therefore, is essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace. This can be achieved through sustainable development and resource planning.
❇️ Sustainable Development :-
🔹 Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present, should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.
❇️ Rio De Janeiro Summit, 1992 :-
🔹 The first International Earth Summit was held in Rio De Janeiro in June 1992.
🔹 The summit addressed the problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development.
🔹 Leaders of more than 100 countries signed the Declaration on Global Climate Change and Biological Diversity. They also adopted Global Forest Principles and Agenda 21.
❇️ Agenda 21 :-
🔹 It is a declaration signed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
🔹 It aims to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation, etc. It also aims that every local government should draw its own local Agenda-21.
❇️ Resource Planning :-
🔹 Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.
🔹 Resource planning is essential for sustainable development in India because some regions are rich in one resources but are deficient in other resources.
🔹 There are some regions which can be considered self sufficient in terms of availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of vital resources. Example :- Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.
❇️ Resource Planning in India :-
🔹 Complex process of resource planning in India is divided into three stages, Example :-
- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
- Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
- Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
🔹 India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resources planning right from the First Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
❇️ Resources and Colonisation :-
🔹 Rich natural resources of colonies were the main attractions for foreign invaders.
🔹 Technological development of the colonising countries helped them to exploit resources of the colonised regions.
🔹 India has experienced by colonisation that the availability of resources as well as the technology and quality of human resource are needed for proper development.
❇️ Conservation of Resources :-
🔹 Resources are vital for any developmental activity. To overcome the problems of irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources, resource conservation at various levels is important.
🔹 At international level, resource conservation was advocated in 1968 at Club of Rome and in 1987, the Brundtland Commission Report extensively mentioned the necessity of resources.
❇️ Land Resources :-
🔹 Land is a very important natural resource. It is limited, so, it needs to be used with careful planning.
❇️ Land Resources in India :-
🔹 Indian’s geographical area compries of variety of relief features i.e. 43 percent plain land area for agriculture and industries, 27 percent plateau which source of mineral, fossil fuels and forest and 30 per cent of mountains.
❇️ Land Utilisation :-
🔹 The geographical process in which a piece of land is used for various economical purposes
🔶 Forests :-
- A Large area of land covered with trees.
🔶 Land not available fo Cultivation :-
- Barren and waste land
- Land put to non-agricultural uses i.e. buildings, roads, Industries
🔶 Uncultivated Other Land :-
- Permanent pastures and grazing land Land
- under miscellaneous tree crops groves
- culturally waste land (left uncultivated for morether syeors)
🔶 Fallow Lands :-
- Current fallow left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year.
- Other than current fallow (left uncultivated for the past 1-5 agricultural years)
🔶 Net Sownarea :-
- It is the total area sown with crops and orchards. It represents and area in which total crops are grown only once a year.
❇️ Land Use Pattern in India :-
🔹 The use of land is determined by physical factors like climate, soil type, topography etc as well as human factors like population density, technological capability and culture and traditions, etc.
🔹 Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km. Out of this, the land under permanent pasture has decreased.
🔹 In India, land use data is available for only 93 per cent of total area.
❇️ major changes place in land use pattern in India :-
🔹 Between 1960-61 and 2014-2015 major changes took place in land use pattern in India. For example, :-
- Most of the other than current fallow lands are of poor quality and their cost of cultivation is very high. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.
- Forest area in India is far lower than the desired 33% of geographical area.
- Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry, etc.
❇️ Land Degradation and Conservation Measures :-
🔹 It is a common problem associated with land resources which is accelerated today because of human activities like deforestation, overgrazing and mining.
🔹 Natural factors like water and wind cause erosion of top soil.
🔹 Mineral processing is also responsible for land degradation.
❇️ Measures to control land degradation :-
🔹 Measures to reduce land degradation are
- Afforestation ,
- Proper management of grazing ,
- Control on Mining ,
- Shelter Belts ,
- proper treatment of industrial water,
- stabilisation of sand dunes etc.
❇️ Soil :-
🔹 Soil is a living system and supports different types of living organisms.
❇️ Formation of soil :-
🔹 It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few an in depth relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
❇️ Classification of Soil :-
🔹 There are various types of soils found in India such as
- Alluvial soil,
- Black soil,
- Red and Yellow soils,
- Laterite soil,
- Arid soil,
- Forest and Mountain soils.
❇️ Alluvial Soil :-
- Alluvial soil is the most widespread soil in India, which has been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems i.e. the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.
- These soils contains adequate propotion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
- Consists various amount of sand, silt and clay.
- According to age of divided into – Khadar and Bangar.
- Ideal for the growth of Sugarcane, Paddy, Wheat and cereal and pulse crops.
❇️ Black Soils :-
- Black soil is also known as black cotton soil or regur soil.
- The factors that are important for the formation of black soil are climatic condition along with parent rock material.
- It is found in the Deccan trap (Basalt) region and is made up of lava flows.
- Rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
- Cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pardesh and Chhattishgarh.
❇️ Red and Yellow Soils :-
🔹 It is red in colour due to diffusion of iron particles into crystalline and metamorphic rocks in low rainfall areas of the Deccan plateau (Eastern and Southern parts).
🔹 It is found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Southern parts of Middle Ganga Plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
❇️ Laterite Soils :-
🔹 The word laterite has been derived from the Latin word later which means brick. Laterite soil develops in tropical and sub-tropical climate with alternative wet and dry season.
🔹 It is found mostly in Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and North-East regions.
❇️ Arid Soils :-
🔹 Range from red to brown in colour. Sandy in texture and saline in nature.
🔹 Arid Soil is found in dry areas. In some areas, common salt is obtained in this soil due to evaporation of water.
🔹 It can be useful for cultivation only with suitable irrigation methods as in case of Western Rajasthan.
❇️ Forest Soils :-
🔹 Forest soil is found in hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available.
🔹 It is found in lower parts of valleys particularly on the river terraces.
❇️ Soil erosion :-
🔹 Removal of the upper layer of soil from one place to another by any natural agent or human activities is called soil erosiom.
❇️ Causes of Soil erosion :-
- Over Grazing
- Construction and mining
- Natural forces like wind, Glacier, water
- Wrong way of ploughing
- Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land
❇️ Solutions of Soil erosion :-
- Ploughing along the contour lines
- steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces
- Large fields can be divided into strips, Strips of grass are grow between the crops
- Planting lines of trees to create shelter
- controlled grazing
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