Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources Notes

10 Class Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectGeography
Chapter Chapter 2
Chapter NameForest and Wildlife Resources
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources Notes. here we will be learn about Flora and Fauna in India , Classification of Species , Causes of depletion of the flora and fauna , Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India , Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources , Community and Conservation etc.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources Notes

📚 Chapter = 2 📚
💠 Forest and Wildlife Resources💠

❇️ Biodiversity or Biological diversity :-

🔹 Refers to diverse form of plants and animals which are closely integrated and interdependent .

❇️ Natural vegetation :-

🔹 Natural vegetation refers to aplant Community which has grown naturally. Forests (woodlands), geasslands etc. are it’s kind. It is also known as virgin vegetation.

❇️ Endemic plants :-

🔹 The virgin (plants) vegetation, which are purely indian. They are also known as indigenous species. 

❇️ Eco-system :-

🔹 All the plants and animals in an area are inter dependent and inter related to each other in their physical environment, thus forming an ecosystem.

❇️ Wildlife :-

🔹 Wild animals living in the natural environment.

❇️ Flora and Fauna :-

🔶 Flora :- Plants of a particular region or period.

🔶 Fauna :- The species of animals.

❇️ Flora and Fauna in India :-

🔹 India is rich in it’s flora. It has about 47,000 plant species about 15,000 Flowering species are endemic (indigenous) to India.

🔹 India is also rich in it’s Fauna. It has more than 81000 of animal species. The country has more than 1200 species of birds. There are 2,500 species of fish, and more than 2500 species of insects.

❇️ Endangered species in India which are in critical condition :- 

🔹 cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet, and plants like madhuca insignis (a wild variety of mahua) and hubbardia heptaneuron,(a species of grass) etc.

❇️ Species facing the threat of extinction :-

🔹 Among the larges animals in India, 7a species of mammals, 44 of birds, 15 of reptiles, and 3 of amphibians are threatened.

❇️ Classification of Species :-

🔹 Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), we can classify as follows :-

🔶 Normal Species :- Species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.

🔶 Endangered Species :- These are species which are in danger of extinction. Example :- Indian wild ass, indian rhino, black buck, crocodile, sangai, lion tailed macaque, etc.

🔶 Vulnerable Species :- These are species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future, if the negative factors continue to operate. Example :- Blue sheep, asiatic elephant, gangetic dolphin, etc.

🔶 Rare Species :- Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill, etc. 

🔶 Endemic Species :- These are species which are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. Examples of such species are the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.

🔶 Extinct Species :- These are species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. Example :- Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.

❇️ IUCN :- 

🔹 The International Union for Conservation of nature and natural resources is the worlds oldest and largest global environmental organisation, founded in1948. it is also called the world conservation union.

❇️ Causes of depletion of the flora and fauna :-

🔹 Human beings transformed nature into a resource obtaining directly and indirectly from the forests and wildlife such as wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, manure, etc. which depleted our forests ar wildlife. 

🔶 Factors responsible for decline in India’s biodiversity :-

  • Over-population 
  • Mining, over-grazing 
  • Un-equal access, inequitable consumption of resources. 
  • Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, poisoning and forest fires. 
  • Environmental pollution 
  • River valley projects, fuel wood collection.

❇️ The Himalayan Yew :-

🔹 The Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallachiana) is a medicinal plant found in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. 

🔶 Usage :- 

🔹 A chemical compound called ‘taxol’ is extracted from the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree, and it has been successfully used to treat some cancers.

🔶 Disadvantages :-

🔹 The species is under great threat due to over-exploitation. In the last one decade, thousands of yew trees have dried up in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.

❇️ Social Effects of Depleting Resources :-

🔹 Due to the scarcity of resources, there are adverse effects on the society. Women are more burdened to collect some things; Like fuel, fodder, drinking water and other basic things. 

🔹 Due to lack of these resources, women have to work more. In some villages, women have to walk several kilometers to fetch drinking water.

🔹 Due to deforestation, natural calamities like floods and droughts increase due to which the poor suffer a lot.

❇️ Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India :-

🔹 Conservation in the background of a rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential. 

🔹 In the 1960s and 1970 conservation demanded a national wildlife protection programme. 

🔶 Indian wildlife protection act :-

🔹The Indian wildlife protection act was implemented in 1972 and later in 1980, 1986, and 1991 some other provisions were added.

🔶 Purpose of Indian wildlife protection act :-

  • The aim of the programme was protecting the remaining population of certain endangered species by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats, and restricting trade in wildlife.
  • The central and many state governments established national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. 
  • The central government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened, including the tiger, the one-horned rhinoceros and others. 

🔹 Project Tiger was also launched by the Government of India in the year 1973 to save the endangered species of tiger in the country. 

🔹 Under Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. 

🔹 In 1991, for the first time plants were also added to the list, starting with six species.

❇️ some of the important tiger reserves of India :-

  • Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, 
  • Sundarbans National Park in West Bengal, 
  • Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh, 
  • Sariska Wild life Sanctuary in Rajasthan, 
  • Manas Tiger reserve in Assam  
  • Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala.

❇️ Wildlife sanctuaries :-

🔹 Natural forests where hunting and poaching of wild animals and birds are prohibited. 

❇️ Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources :-

🔹 In India much of its forest and wildlife resources are either owned or managed by the government through the Forest Department or other government departments. 

🔹 These are classified under the following categories :-

🔶 Reserved Forests :- More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forests. Reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned. 

🔶 Protected Forests :- Almost one-third of the total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the Forest Department. This forest land are protected from any further depletion.

🔶 Unclassed Forests :- These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.

❇️ Community and Conservation :-

🔹 We often ignore that in India forests are also home to the traditional communities. 

🔹 In some areas of India local communities are struggling to conserve these habitats along with government officials recognizing that only this will secure their own long – term livelihood. 

🔹 The Alwar district of Rajasthan has declared 1,200 hectares. 

🔹 The famous Chipko movement in the Himalayas has not only successfully resisted deforestation in several areas. 

🔹 Farmers and citizen’s groups like the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya have shown that adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of synthetic.

🔹 The programme has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Orissa passed the first resolution for joint forest management.

❇️ chipko movement :-

🔹 It was organised in the Himalayas, to resist deforestation in several areas. They also opted for community afforestation to save indigenous species. They made attempts to revive the traditional conservation methods.

❇️ Beej bachao andolan in Tehri :-

🔹 Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdahya Save the need movement varches, reintroduces, collect, tests, distributes and popularizes every indigenous variety of mountain crops available. 

🔹 It advocates the discontinuation of the use of chemical dependent needs and synthetic chemicals. 

🔹 These measures, they argue are also economically viable as diversified crop production in adequate quantities have been achieved. 

🔹 It has also been able to successfully review the free exchange of needs within the coomunity and has proved to be a lifeline of traditional mountain agriculture.

❇️ Joint Forest Management :-

🔹 In India JMF Program furnishes a good example for involving local communities in the management and restoration fo degraded forests. 

🔹 The program has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Odisha passed the first resolution for joint forest management. 

❇️ features of JFM (Joint Forest Management) :-

🔹 JFM depends on the formation of local (village) institution that undertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the forest department. 

🔹  In return the members of there communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like with timber, forest produces and share in the timber larvested by successful protection.

❇️ some ways that can put end to the indiscriminate destruction of our wild life :-

  • Effective wild life Protection act by governments. 
  • Indian Government have set up about four teen bioreserve to protect both flora and fauna. 
  • Financial and Technical assistance is provided to many botanical gardens by the Government since 1992. 
  • Project Tiger, project Rhino, Project Great Indian to Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced.
  • There are 89 National Parks, 490 wildlife Sanctuaries and Zoological Gardens set up.  
  • Besides that all of us must realise the importance of the natural ecosystem for own survival.
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