Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes

10 Class Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectGeography
Chapter Chapter 6
Chapter NameManufacturing Industries
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes. here we will be learn about Manufacturing , Importance of Manufacturing , Agriculture and Industry , Contribution of Industry to National Economy , Industrial Location , Classification of Industry , Agro Based Industry , Textile Industry , Cotton textiles , Jute Textiles , Sugar Industries , Mineral Based Industries , Iron and Steel Industry , Aluminium Smelting , Chemical Industries , Fertiliser Industry , Cement Industry Automobile Industry , Information Technology and Electronics Industry , Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation , Control of Environmental Degradation etc.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes

📚 Chapter = 6 📚
💠 Manufacturing Industries💠

❇️ Manufacturing :-

🔹 Production of goods in large quantities by processing raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. 

🔹 Manufacturing industries are known as secondary activities, as these industries manufacture primary material (like cotton fibre) into finished goods (like textiles)

❇️ Importance of Manufacturing :-

  • Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture; which forms the backbone of our economy. 
  • Manufacturing industries also reduce the heavy dependence of agricultural income because of the creation of new jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. 
  • Industrial development helps in eradication of unemployment and poverty. 
  • Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce which helps to brings in much needed foreign exchange. 
  • A country with a high level of manufacturing activities becomes prosperous. 

❇️ Agriculture and Industries :-

🔹 Agriculture and industries depend upon each other. On one hand many industries like sugar, textile, etc depend on agricultural products like, cotton is the raw material in cotton textile mills. 

🔹 On the other hand, many industrial products like fertilisers, irrigation pumps, PVC pipes, tractors, machines and tools help in increasing agricultural productivity.

❇️ Contribution of Industry to National Economy :-

  • The share of manufacturing sector in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has stagnated at 17% over the last two decades. 
  • The total contribution of industry to the GDP is 27% out of which 10% comes from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. 
  • The growth of the manufacturing sector had been 7% in the last decade. Since 2003, the growth rate has been 9 to 10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%. 
  • The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up with the objectives of improving productivity through proper policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry.

❇️ National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) :-

🔹 It has been set up by the Government of India to provide a continuing forum for policy dialogue to energise and sustain the growth of manufacturing industries in India.

❇️ Industrial Location :-

🔹 The location of an industry is influenced by Government policies, availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market facilities.

❇️ Factors which Affect the Industrial Location :- 

🔶 Geographical factors :-

  • Availability of raw material. 
  • Energy and power resources. 
  • Suitable climate. 
  • Land 
  • Availability of water.(Inexpensive and abundant in case of some industries like Jute)

🔶 Non-geographical factors :-

  • Labour 
  • Capital 
  • Bazaar/Markets’ 
  • Services like Transport, Communication, Banking, Insurance etc. 
  • Financial advice 
  • Government policies 
  • Infrastructure 
  • Entrepreneur

❇️ Manufacturing Industry and Urbanisation :-

🔹 Industrialisation and urbanisation depend upon each other. Industries are located around the cities where there are market of industrial goods and services like banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial services are available.

🔹 During pre-independence era manufacturing units were located near the sea ports for overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai. Many industries tends to come together to make use of advantages offered by urban centres known as Agglomeration Economies.

❇️ Urbanisation :-

🔹 The increase in proportion of people living in towns and cities. 

❇️ Agglomeration Economies :-

🔹 These occur when the larger market, lower transportation costs and other benefits outweigh the added expenses (such as higher rent or taxes) of working in a city. 

❇️ Industry-Market Linkage :-

🔹 Industry and market are closely linked with each other. A number of factors/ components which link these, are :-

  • Money is needed to buy inputs for production. After selling the finished products in the market manufacturers/ industrialists also gain profit in the form of money. 
  • Inputs (like raw materials/component parts) are needed to produce goods in industries. 
  • Land, labour, capital, entrepreneur and infrastructure are the factory of production. 
  • A good network of transport is needed to supply raw materials from source region to factories and finished products to markets. 
  • Factories are setup to produce different products outputs. After manufacturing the finished goods a well developed market is needed to sell these goods.

❇️ Classification of Industries :-

🔹 Industries are classified on the basis of the following criteria :-

✳️ Classification of industries on the basis of raw materials :-

🔶 Agro-Based Industries :- Cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee, etc. 

🔶 Mineral-Based Industries :- Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, petrochemicals, etc. 

✳️ Classification of industries according to their main role :-

🔶 Basic or Key Industries :- These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods, Example :- iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting. 

🔶 Consumer Industries :- These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, Example :- sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc. 

✳️ Classification of industries on the basis of capital investment :-

🔶 Small Scale Industry :- If the invested capital is up to ₹1 crore, then the industry is called a Small Scale Industry.

🔶 Large Scale Industry :- If the invested capital is than ₹1 then the industry is called Large Scale Industry.

✳️ Classification of industries on the basis of ownership :-

🔶 Public Sector :- These industries are owned and operated by government agencies, Example :- SAIL, BHEL, ONGC, etc. 

🔶 Private Sector :- These industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, Example :- TISCO, Reliance, Mahindra, etc. 

🔶 Joint Sector :- These industries are jointly owned by the government and individuals or a group of individuals, Example :- Oil India Limited. 

🔶 Cooperative Sector :- These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The resources are pooled by each share holder and profits or losses are shared proportionately. AMUL which is Milk Cooperative is a good example. The Sugar Industry in Maharashtra is another example.

✳️ Classification of industries on the basis of bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods :-

🔶 Heavy industries :- in which large machines and heavy or bulky raw materials are used to produce products, including capital goods like automobiles and construction machinery. For example :- Iron and steel industry. 

🔶 Light Industries :- in which light raw materials are used to produce light utility goods, Example :- electrical industries, toy industry.

❇️ Types of Industries on the Basis of Material Used :-

🔹 On the basis of materials used the industries are classified into :-

  • Agro-based industries
  • Mineral based industries.

❇️ Agro-Based Industries :-

🔹 Industries based on agricultural raw materials are called agro based industries. For example, cotton textiles, jute textiles, woollen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry, etc.

💠 Types of Agro Based Industries 💠

❇️ Textile Industry :- 

  • The textile industry contributes 14% to industrial production in India. 
  • 35 million people are directly employed in the textiles industry in India. 
  • In terms of employment generation, this industry is the second largest after agriculture. 
  • It earns approximately 24.6% of the foreign exchange. 
  • The contribution of textiles industry to GDP is 4%. 
  • This is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.

❇️ Cotton Textile :-

  • First successful cotton textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854. 
  • Mahatma Gandhi laid emphasis on the spinning of yarn and wearing khadi so that weavers could get employment. 
  • In the early years the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujrat.
  • Availability of raw material , market , transport facilities ( port ) , labour and moist climate contributed towards its localisation.
  • While spinning continues to be centralized in Maharashtra , Gujarat and Tamilnadu , weaving is highly decentralized to provide scope for incorporating traditional skills and design of weaving in cotton , silk , zari , embroidery , etc.
  • Cotton goods are exported to Japan , USA , UK , Russia , France , East European countries , Nepal , Singapore , Sri Lanka and several African countries. 

❇️ Problems before the cotton industry in India :-

  • Old and traditional technique. 
  • Low output of labour. 
  • Stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry. 
  • Erratic power supply. 
  • Lack of new machinery and need of up-gradation especially in weaving and processing sectors.

❇️ Jute Textiles :-

  • India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. 
  • The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra.
  • It stands second in the jute export after Bangladesh. 
  • After partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India, but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan). 
  • Jute industry is located along the Hugli river in West Bengal. 

❇️ The factors responsible for the location of jute mills in Hugli basin are :-

  • The West Bengal is the largest producer of Jute in India. 
  • Abundant and inexpensive water from the Hugli river for processing raw jute. 
  • Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills. 
  • Inexpensive (Cheap) water transport and Kolkata port for export of jute goods. 
  • Being a large urban centre Kolkata provides banking, insurance and other facilities.

❇️ Challenges faced by the Jute industry :-

  • Things from synthetic fibre are in the market. 
  • Synthetic fibre is cheap, compare to jute. 
  • The jute cultivation is very expensive and hard. 
  • Stiff competition in the international market from other substitutes is a big challenge. 
  • Bangladesh is a big challenge as a competitor while Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand are other competitors.

❇️ Sugar Industry :-

  • India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. 
  • Sugar mills in India spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat. 
  • In recent years, there is a tendency for the mills to concentrate in the Southern and Western states, especially in Maharashtra. 
  • This is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content and cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.

❇️ Challenges faced by the Sugar industry :-

  • This is a seasonal and short term industry. 
  • Sugarcane production per hectare is low. 
  • Old machines in use. Inefficient method of production. 
  • Need to maximise the use of baggase. 
  • Transport delay in reaching cane to factories.

❇️ Mineral Based Industries :-

🔹 Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.

❇️ Iron and Steel Industry :-

  • The iron and steel Industry is the basic industry since all the other industries- heavy, medium, and light depends on it for their machinery. 
  • India ranked second in the production of crude steel in the world with 111 million tonnes in 2019.
  • India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But its per capita consumption was only 74.3 kg per annum in 2019 against 229.3 kg of world average.
  • Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL). 
  • Chotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of Iron and Steel industries. 

❇️ Due to the maximum concentration of iron and steel industry in the Chotanagpur plateau region :-

  • Low cost of iron ore. 
  • High grade raw materials in proxity. 
  • Available of Cheap labour. 
  • Vast growth potential in domestic market.

❇️ Processes of Manufacture of Steel :-

🔹 In order to manufacture steel, iron ore, coking coal and limestone are needed in the ratio of approx. 4 : 2: 1. Manganese is also required to harden the steel. 

🔹 The processes of manufacture of steel is shown below

  • Transport of raw material to plant (Iron-ore, coking coal, limestone, manganese) ⇒⇒⇒⇒ Blast Furnace :- Iron ore is melted. Limestone is fluxing material which is added. Slag is removed. Coke is burnt to heat the ore. ⇒⇒⇒⇒ Pig Iron :- Molten materials poured into moulds called pigs. ⇒⇒⇒⇒ Steel Making :- Pig iron is further purified by melting and oxidising the impurities. Manganese, nickel and chromium are added. ⇒⇒⇒⇒ Shaping Metal :- Roling, pressing, casting and forging

❇️ Reasons why iron and steel industry is called basic industry :-

  • Many other industries are dependent on iron and steel industry. 
  • Iron and steel industry provides machines to other industries such as sugar industry or cement industry etc. 
  • Industrial progress of the country depends on this industry. 
  • Provide jobs to a large number of people. 

❇️ Reasons why iron and steel industry is called heavy industry :-

🔹 All the raw materials, like iron-ore, coal and lime are heavy in nature. Finished products of this industry needs high cost of transport.

❇️ Due to the lack of full development of iron and steel industry in India :-

🔹 The challenges due to which India is not able to perform to its full potential in this industry are :-

  • Limited availability and high cost of coking coal. 
  • Poor infrastructure 
  • Lower labour productivity.
  • Irregular supply of energy

❇️ Aluminium Smelting :-

  • It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. 
  • Bauxite is the basic raw material of this industry which is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock. 
  • Aluminium is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals. 
  • It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. 
  • Aluminium has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in different industries. 
  • The factors responsible for the location of this Industry are regular supply of electricity and availability of raw material at minimum cost. 
  • In India, aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. 

❇️ Chemical Industries :-

🔹 In India, the chemical industry is fast growing and diversifying in nature. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Chemical industry has two sectors namely organic and inorganic sectors.

🔶 Organic sector :- 

  • Organic sector produces organic chemicals. These chemicals include petrochemicals. 
  • Petrochemicals are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals. 
  • Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants. 

🔶 Inorganic sector :- 

  • Inorganic sector produces inorganic chemicals. 
  • These chemicals include sulphuric acid used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents paper) and caustic soda. 
  • These chemical plants are located all over the country.

❇️ Fertilizer Industry :-

🔹 The fertilizer industries are centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K). 

  • Potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potassium compound. 
  • After the Green Revolution the industry expanded to several part of the country.
  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production.

❇️ Cement Industry :-

  • Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. 
  • This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica and gypsum.
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904. 
  • After independence the industry flourished in India. 
  • Its plants are located in Gujarat due to its access to the market in the gulf countries.

❇️ Why the development of Cement industry is very important for our country?

  • Our cement industry provides best quality product. 
  • There is a great demand in Asian and African countries and within India also. 
  • This industry is doing well in production and as export. 
  • Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production.

❇️ Automobile Industry :-

  • Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transportation of goods and passengers. 
  • After the liberalization the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market. 
  • The industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, etc.

❇️ How the liberalisation and direct foreign investment have made a rapid growth in the automobile industry of India ?

  • The coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demands for vehicles in the market after the liberalisation. 
  • It led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three wheelers. 
  • Foreign direct investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments. 
  • The industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years. 
  • At present there are 15 manufacturers of passenger cars,9 of commercial vehicles,14 of the two and three wheelers.

❇️ Information Technology (IT) and Electronics Industry :-

🔹 It covers products from transistor sets to televisions, telephones, cellphones, telephone exchanges, radars, computers and other equipment required by the telecommunication and computer industry. 

🔹 Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres for electronic goods are Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Pune, Delhi, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

❇️ Contribution of India’s information and technology industry in the economic development :-

  • Provides employment. 
  • Has been a major foreign exchange earner. 
  • The number of working women have been increased.
  • The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in India. 
  • Software technology parks provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.

❇️ Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation :-

🔹 Although industries have contributed significantly to India’s economic growth and development but their waste products have caused environmental degradation.

🔹 Industries are responsible for four types of pollution i.e. air, water, land and noise. 

❇️ Air pollution :-

🔹 It is caused by the presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

🔹 Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels lead to air pollution. 

🔹 It adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole. 

❇️ Water pollution :-

🔹 It is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.

🔹 The industries which are mainly responsible for water pollution are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries. 

❇️ Thermal pollution :- 

🔹 Pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. 

❇️ Noise pollution :-

🔹 It is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. It results in irritation, anger, hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure.

❇️ Control of Environmental Degradation :-

🔶 Some suggestions to minimise the industrial pollution of freshwater are :-

  • Minimising water usage by reusing and recycling waste water in two or more successive stages. 
  • Rainwater harvesting to meet water requirements. 
  • Treating hot water and industrial wastes before releasing them in rivers and ponds. 

🔶 This can be done in three phases :-

  • Primary treatment by mechanical means (i.e. screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.) 
  • Secondary treatment by biological processes. Such as planting trees, rain water harvesting. 
  • Tertiary treatment by chemical, physical and biological processes like recycling of waste water, in sewage treatment plants. 

Note :- Sewage treatment plant under Yamuna Action Plan is located at Faridabad. 

🔶 General measures to minimise environmental pollution are :-

  • Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industries needs to be regulated legally.  
  • Generators and other machinery should be fitted with silencers and other noise absorbing materials to reduce their sound. 
  • Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. 
  • Use of oil or gas instead of coal to reduce smoke emission from factories. 
  • Redesigning of machinery to increase their efficiency in using energy. 
  • Promote sustainable development by integrating economic development goals with environmental construction.

❇️ NTPC :-

🔹 National Thermal Power Corporation is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification 14001 for developing Environment Management Systems.

🔹 Major task of NTPC is to set up power plants by conserving the natural environment and resources like air, water, oil gas, coal and other fuels. This is possible through :-

  • Optimum utilisation of equipments, adopting latest techniques and upgrading old equipment wherever possible. 
  • Minimising waste generation in thermal power plants by adopting ash utilisation techniques. 
  • Development of green belts by afforestation to maintain ecological balance. 
  • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management. 
  • Installing facilities for ecological monitoring, review and online database management in all the power stations.
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