Lifelines of national economy class 10 notes, Class 10 geography chapter 7 notes

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10 Class Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy Notes

ClassClass 10
Chapter Chapter 7
Chapter NameLifelines of National Economy
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes

Lifelines of national economy class 10 notes, Class 10 geography chapter 7 notes. here we will be learn about Life lines of a country , Transport , Roadways , Railways , Pipelines , Waterways , Airways , Communication , International Trade , Tourism as Trade etc.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy Notes

📚 Chapter = 7 📚
💠 Lifelines of National Economy💠

❇️ Life lines of a country :-

🔹 Modern means of communication and transport which brings people together and helps in local, national and international trade.

❇️ Means of Transport :-

🔹 Means of transports which make possible the movement of goods, services and humans/animals from one place to another place.

🔹 There are different means of transport through which movement of these goods and services is done over three important domains of the earth i.e. land, water and air.

❇️ Means of communication :-

🔹 Methods through which information, news, dialogue etc. communicated from one place and person to another place and person are called means of communication. Such as newspaper, radio, T.V. telephone, mobile phone, e-mail etc.

❇️ Transport :-

  • Land
    • Roadways 
    • Railways 
    • Pipelines
  • Water
    • Inland 
    • Overseas
  • Air
    • Domestic Airways
      • Public Undertaking
      • Private Airlines 
    • International Airways

✳️ Land Transport :- Land transport includes roadways, railways and pipelines.

❇️ Roadways :-

🔹 India has one of the largest road networks in the world which is about 56 lakh km. 

❇️ Advantages of Roadways over Railways :-

Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines. 

Roads can traverse comparatively in more dissected and undulating topography. 

Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes. 

Road transportation is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amounts of goods over short distances. 

Provides door to door service, thus cost of loading and unloading is much lower 

Feeder to other models of transport as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

❇️ Classification of Roads in India :-

🔹 In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity :-

  1. Golden quadrilateral :- Links Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai.
  2. National highways :- Link extreme parts of the country. 
  3. State highways :- Link state capital with district head quarters. 
  4. District roads :- Connect district headquarters with other places of district. 
  5. Other roads :- Rural roads, which link villages importance.
  6. Border roads :- Link places of strategic more than border in northeast and northern border areas.

❇️ Golden Quadrilateral :-

A Six lane Super Highway which connects Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai- Mumbai-and Delhi.

The North South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu). 

The East-West corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujrat). 

The major objective of these Super Highways is to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India. 

These highway projects are being implemented by the National High- way Authority of India (NHAI).

❇️ National Highways :-

  • The National highways are a network of trunk roads that are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). 
  • The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.

❇️ State Highways :-

  • Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. 
  • These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD).

❇️ District Roads :-

  • These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. 
  • These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

❇️ Other Roads :-

Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. 

These are constructed under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). 

Under this scheme, special provisions have been made to link every village to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.

❇️ Border Roads :-

  • Border Roads Organisation constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country. 
  • This Organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and north-eastern border areas.

❇️ Classification of Roads on the Basis of Material Used :-

🔹 On this basis of type of material used, roads are of two types :-

🔶 Metalled Roads :- They may be made of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal. Therefore, these are all weather roads. 

🔶 Unmetalled or Unpaved Roads :- They are made of clay, crushed rock and can be used in dry season only. They have no use during rainy season.

❇️ Major challenges of road transport :- 

Almost half of the roads are unmetalled roads and go out of use in the rainy season. 

Roads are insufficient in compare to transport and commuters. 

Roads are narrow and crowded due to the increasing number of vehicles. 

It leads to traffic jams and road rage. 

Even National highways are insufficient.

❇️ Railways :-

Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. 

It also makes it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.

It has been a great integrating force along with accelerating the development of industry and agriculture. 

The Indian Railways is now reorganized into 16 zones.

The Indian Railways network spread over a route length of 68,442 km. 

There are 3 types of guages (railways track) Example :- broad guage, metre guage and narrow guage.

❇️ Challenges for Indian Railway :-

It is difficult to lay railway lines in the hilly regions of peninsular India. In these regions railways tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels. 

The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. 

It requires construction of bridges over rivers in India. 

It is difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand. 

There are problems of sinking of railway tracks. For example, Sahyadri or Western Ghats has faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides. 

The initial costs of laying the tracks are too high.

❇️ Some railway zones and their Headquarter :-

  • Northern Railway Zone – New Delhi 
  • Western Railway zone – Mumbai 
  • Southern Railway zone – Chennai

❇️ Reasons behind the unequal distribution of Rail network in India :-

It is difficult to lay railway lines on mountainous region and it is expensive too. 

The northern plains with their vast level land provides favourable condition for Rail construction. Here construction is easy and construction cost is low. 

High population density and rich agricultural resources provide the most favourable condition for the growth. 

Due to sparse population and lack of economic activities it was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains of western Rajasthan and in the hilly terrains of the peninsular region. 

Due to administrative reasons and Government policies also the development of Railways effected.

❇️ Problems of Indian Railways :-

Many passengers travel without tickets. 

Theft and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely. 

People stop train by pulling the chain unnecessarily that causes heavy damage to the railway.

❇️ Pipelines :-

🔹 Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. 

🔹 In the past these were used to transport water to cities and industries. 

🔹 Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants. 

🔹 Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry. 

❇️ Important network of pipeline :-

🔹 There are three important network of pipeline transportation in the country. 

From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. 

From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. 

Gas pipelines from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh,

❇️ Advantages of Pipeline Transport :-

Pipeline transport network is used to transport water to cities and industries, crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants. 

Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. 

It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays. 

Pipelines make transport fast, safe and easy. 

It saves time and reduce pressure on rail transport.

❇️ Waterways :-

🔹 Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. It is fuel-efficient, environment-friendly and suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. 

❇️ Inland Waterways :-

🔹 India has inland navigation waterways of about 14,500 km in length out of which 5,685 km are navigable by mechanised vessels.

🔶 Waterways in India are :- 

  • N.W. No.1 :- On the Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km). 
  • N.W. No.2 :- On the Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km). 
  • N.W. No.3 :- On the West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottappuram-Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km). 
  • N.W. No.4 :- Specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km). 
  • N.W. No.5 :- Specified stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km). 

❇️ Overseas Waterways :-

🔹 India’s trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports. There are 2 major and 200 notified non-majors (minor/intermediate) ports in India.

❇️ Major Sea Ports :-

  • With a long coastline of 7,516.6 km, India is dotted with 12 major and 200 notified non-majors (minor/intermediate) ports. 
  • These major ports handle 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade. 

🔶 Sea Ports in India :-

🔹 Ports on the western coast :-

  • Kandla Port ,
  • Mumbai Port ,
  • The Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) Port ,
  • Marmagao Port ,
  • New Mangalore Port.

🔹 Ports on the eastern coast :-

  • Kochi Port ,
  • Tuticorin Port ,
  • Chennai Port ,
  • Visakhapatnam, Port ,
  • Paradeep Port ,
  • Kolkata and Haldia Port.

❇️ Airways :-

The air travel is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport. 

It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, vast deserts, dense forests and long oceanic stretches with great ease. 

Air transport was nationalised in 1953. 

Air India provides domestic and international air services. 

Pawanhans Helicopters Limited provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the North-Eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

❇️ Importance of Air transport :-

It is fastest among all. Take lesser time to reach one place to another. 

It is a most comfortable.

It’s prestigious mode of transport. 

can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also long oceanic stretches with great ease. 

On the border, to maintain the force and to provide them food and ration at earliest.

❇️ International Airports :-

🔹 An International Airport’s offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Bengaluru, Amritsar, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Panaji, Guwahati and Cochin are some major international airports in India. 

❇️ Domestic Airports :-

🔹 There are 134 airports. The Government owned Airports Authority of India (AAI) operates 122 airports and civil enclaves out of a total of 449 airports and airstrips located throughout India. Airports are managed by the Airport Authority of India.

❇️ Communication :-

🔹 Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. 

🔹 From the earliest times, human beings have felt the need to communicate with each other. The latest advances in communication are about enabling communication over long distances without the need for change in location of the sender or receiver.

❇️ Types of Communication :-

🔶 Personal communication :- Personal communication is where just two or a small group of people communicate with each other. Personal letters, e-mails and phone calls are examples of personal communication.

🔶 Mass communication :- Mass communication is communication referred to an indefinite number of people spread over a large geographical area. Radio, television, cinema, newspapers, magazines and internet, are examples of communication.

❇️ Major Means of Communication in India :-

🔶 Personal communication :-

Cards and envelops were considered first class mail.

The second class mail includes book, packets, registered newspapers and periodicals.

To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently.

India has one of the largest telecom network in Asia.

🔶 Mass communication :-

Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dilects.

Along with entertainment it creates awareness among people people about various national programmes and policies.

The central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

All India Radio (Aakashwani broadcasts a verity of programmes in National, Regional and local languages.

❇️ Advantages of Mass communication :-

Mass communication provides entertainment. 

Creates awareness among people about various National programme and policies. 

It spreads knowledge. 

It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. 

Doordarshan, the national television channel of India is the medium of national message and is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world.

❇️ Trade :-

🔹 Exchange of goods between two parties such as people, states and countries is called Trade. 

❇️ International Trade :-

🔹 Trade between two and more countries is called International trade. 95% of country’s trade volume is moved by sea.

❇️ Different between the International and local trade :-

International Trade Local Trade 
Carried between two countries. Carried among village, town and cities. 
At a large scale. At a small scale. 
Foreign currency is exchanged.Currency remains in the same country. 
Fulfil needs for the entire public welfare. (whole world) Fulfils the need and necessities of local people only. 
Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. Advancement of local trade also benefits a country indirectly.

❇️ Economic Barometer :- 

🔹 Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country. 

❇️ Balance of Trade (BOT) :-

🔹 Export and import are the components of trade. The balance of trade is the difference between export and import of a country. 

🔹 When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. 

🔹 On the other hand, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.

🔹 India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world.

❇️ Exported and Imported Commodities :-

🔹 The commodities exported from India to other countries include gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc. 

🔹 India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology. 

🔹 The commodities imported from other countries of India include petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products.

❇️ Tourism as a Trade :-

🔹 Tourism promotes national integration and develops an international understanding. It supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.

❇️ New forms of Tourism :-

🔹 Heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism. Over 2.6 million foreign tourists visit India every year.

❇️ How is the tourism is helpful in the development of economy as a trade or industry?

Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades. 

More than 15 million(150 lakhs)people are directly engaged in this industry. 

Tourism also promotes national integration.

It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage. 

It also provide support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits. 

It contributes significantly in earning foreign exchange.

❇️ Why the transport and means of communication are called the lifelines of an economy?

  • The trade, transport and communication are complementary to each other. 
  • Connects the far reaching areas of the country and the world. 
  • Encourage the national and international tourism. 
  • Brings foreign exchange. 
  • Life gets comfortable and easy. 
  • The whole country unites in emergency.
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