10 Class History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes
|Chapter Name||The Rise of Nationalism in Europe|
|Category||Class 10 History Notes|
Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes. here we will be learn about The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: (a)The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc. (c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece. Etc
Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes
📚 Chapter = 1 📚
💠 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe💠
❇️ Nationalism :-
🔹 Nationalism refers to the feeling of oneness and common consciousness that energes when people living in a common territory share the same historical, political and cultural back grounds. People may be speaking different languages (as in case of India) but the love for their na- tion keeps them together.
❇️ Concept of Nation State :-
🔹 During the 19th century nationalism emerged as a force in Europe. It brought about sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe which resulted in emergence of the nation-state.
❇️ Frederic Sorrieu and His Visualisation :-
🔹 Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist drew a series of four prints which depicted his dream of a world made up of ‘Democratic and Social Republics’ in 1848.
❇️ Absolutist :-
🔹 Literally, a government of system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.
❇️ Utopian :-
🔹 A vision of a society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
❇️ Plebiscite :-
🔹 A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
❇️ Reasons for th Rise of Nationalism in Europe :-
- Spread of liberal ideas
- Slogan fo liberty, Equality and Fraternity
- Role of educated middle class
❇️ Gradual Development of Nationalism in Europe :-
French Revolution 1789 ⇒ Civil Code 1804 ⇒ Viena Confrence 1815 ⇒ Revolution by Liberals 1848 ⇒ Unification of Germany 1866-1871 ⇒ Unification of Italy 1859-1871
❇️ The French Revolution :-
🔹 French Revolution It was the first expression of nationalism. It ended monarchy in France and gave power to the citizens.
❇️ The French Revolution and the Idea of Nation :-
🔹 The first idea of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.
🔹 The French Revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices and introduced the ideas like, la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) amongst the French people.
🔹 A centralised administrative system and a uniform law for all citizens was introduced.
🔹 From the very begining of the French Revolution, the French revolution- aries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity (nationalism) amongst the French people.
🔹 Later, Na- poleon introduced revolutionary reforms in the administrative field which is known as Civil Code of 1804 (The Napoleonic Code).
❇️ Napoleonic code of 1804 :-
🔹 Napoleon had incorporated revolutionary principle by introducing the Civil Code of 1804, which was known as Napoleonic Code.
❇️ Features of the Civil Code of 1804 :-
- This civil code removed all privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
- It abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- It simplified administrative divisions, removed guild system, improved transport and communication system, introduced standardised weights and measures and common national currency.
❇️ The Making of Nationalism in Europe :-
🔹 There were no nation-states in the mid-18th century Europe.
🔹 Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective unity or a common culture.
❇️ Aristocracy and the New Middle Class :-
🔹 Aristocracy, was a small group but it was the dominant class in the continent. They owned estates and property.
🔹 Due to industrialisation the new social groups of working class and middle class population, including industrialists, businessmen, professionals came into existence.
❇️ Liberal Nationalism :-
- In the early 19th century, ideas of national unity were closely related to the ideology of liberalism.
- For the new middle classes, liberalism meant freedom for individual and equality of all before law.
- In France, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to persons who owned property. Men without property and women were excluded from this right.
- In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- In 1834, a Customs Union or Zollverein was formed by Prussia and accepted by most of the German state.
- The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
❇️ Zollverein :-
🔹 Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German States.The union abolished tariff barriers and reduce the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
❇️ Conservatism :-
🔹 A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
❇️ A New Conservatism After 1815 :-
- Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.
- Conservatism stressed on the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs and preferred gradual development to quick change.
- The European powers like Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon met at Vienna and signed up the Treaty of Vienna in 1815. The congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich and they drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.
- The major outcomes of the treaty are the Bourbon dynasty restored power, France lost all the territories, annexed by Napoleon and a series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent its expansion in future.
- The main intention of congress was to restore the monarchies that has been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.
❇️ Vienna Congress in 1815 :-
🔹 representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian chancellor Duke Metternich.
❇️ Features of Treaty of Vienna, 1815 :-
- The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power in France.
- The main intention was to create a new conservative order in Europe.
- France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
- A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent expansion in future.
❇️ The Revolutionaries :-
🔹 The liberal nationalists opposed monarchial forms that had been established after Vienna Congress and fight for liberty and freedom.
🔹 In Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini became a member of secret society and found two underground societies, viz, Young Italy and Young Europe.
🔹 His relentless opposition to monarchy made Metternich to describe him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
❇️ Duke Matternich :-
- He was the Austrian Chancellor.
- He was born on 15th May 1773.
- He had once remarked that “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”.
- He took a prominent part in Congress of Vienna and dominated the European politics from 1814 to 1848.
- He acted as the restorer of the ‘old Regime’ and the reconstruction of Europe after the Napoleonic wars.
❇️ Giuseppe Mazzini :-
- He was born in Genoa in 1807.
- He became a member of secret society of the Carbonari.
- As a young man of 24, he was sent to exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
- He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles and then, Young Europe in Berne.
- Mazzini’s relent- less opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics fright- ened the conservatives. Matternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
❇️ The Age of Revolution: 1830-1848 :-
🔹 Liberalism and nationalism was associated with the revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states,the provinces of Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland. These revolutions were led by liberal nationalists.
🔹 The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830. The Bourbon kings were overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed Louis Philippe as the constitutional monarch.
🔹 There was a struggle for independence in Greece and the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
❇️ The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling :-
🔹 Romanticism was a cultural movement that tried to create a sense of a shared collective heritage as a basis of a nation.
🔹 Some countries like Poland kept nationalist feeling alive through music and language. The clergies in Poland used Polish language for religious instruction.
❇️ Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt :-
🔹 The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe.
🔹 There was enormous increase in population all over the Europe and population from rural areas migrated to cities to live in overcrowded slum.
🔹 The conditions of the workers in town was extreme. In 1845, there was a revolt of weavers in Silesia village against the contractors.
🔹 In 1848, population of Paris revolted due to food shortage and widespread unemployment. Barricades were erected and Louis Philippe was forced to flee.
🔹 As a result, a National Assembly proclaimed a republic and granted suffrage to adult males above 21 and guaranteed them the right to work. National workshop were set-up to provide employment.
🔹 It was because the contractors supplied raw material to weaver and reduced their payments.
🔹 As a result, suffrage (right to vote) was granted to males above 21 by the National Assembly. This gave them the right to work.
❇️ 1848 : The Revolution of the Liberals :-
🔹 In Germany, Italy, Poland and Austro-Hungarian empire demanded for constitutionalism with national unification. The liberal took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of nation-state.
🔹 In 1848 France, Germany, Italy, Poland etc demanded for a nation state based on Constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
🔹 Monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe wanted to introduce changes like that in Western Europe exaboilish of serfdom and bonded labour in Habsburg and Russia.
❇️ May Revolution :-
🔹 On 18th May, 1848, 831 elected representatives assembled in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a Constitution for German nation. According to this Constitution, the nation was to be headed by a monarchy under a parliamentary control.
🔹 The highest position was offered to Friedrich Wilhelm IV (King of Prussia), but he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The Parliament also lost its support as demands of workers and artisans were ignored and the assembly was disbanded.
❇️ Issue of Political Rights to Women :-
🔹 Women were not given any political rights so large number of women participated actively in the liberal movements to demand for their rights.
🔹 They formed their own political associations, founded newspaper and took actively in political meeting and demonstrations.
❇️ Feminist :-
🔹 Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on the belief of the social, economic and political equality of the genders.
❇️ Ideology :-
🔹 System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
❇️ The Making of Germany and Italy :-
🔹 After 1848, nationalist sentiments were widespread in Germany and Italy which led to their unification.
❇️ Unification of Germany :-
🔹 The middle class tried to unite the different regions of German confederation into a nation-state. Prussia took the leadership of the movement.
🔹 It’s Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck, aimed to achieve the unification with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
🔹 Prussian victory in three wars with Austria, Denmark and France ended and completed the process of its unification.
🔹 Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck along with princes of German states, representatives of the army, Prussian ministers declared the new German Empire on 18th January, 1871. It was headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
🔹 Newly formed state, Germany emphasised on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems.
❇️ Unification of Italy :-
🔹 During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. Only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely house.
🔹 Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo de Cavour, Giuseppe Garibaldi took responsibilities to unite Italy. Due to their effort Italy was united in 1861.
🔹 In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of United Italy.
🔹 The states of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and the Papal were joined with Sardinia.
🔹 The final unification of Italy was achieved in 1871 and Rome became a part of Sardinia.
❇️ Growth of Great Britain :-
🔹 There was no British nation prior to the 18th century. The primary identities of the people in the British Isles were ethnic ones like English, Welsh, Scot and Irish.
🔹 The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. By this Act, Scotland was incorporated in England.
🔹 Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom of Britain in 1801.
🔹 The symbols of the new Britain were the British flag (Union Jack), the National Anthem (God save our Nobel King) and the English language.
❇️ Visualising the Nation :-
🔹 Artists in the 18th and 19th century started to personify nations as female figures.
🔹 These female figures became known as allegory of nations, viz in France, Marianne was the allegory and in Germany, Germania was the allegory.
❇️ Allegory :-
🔹 When an abstract idea (for instance, greed, envy, freedom, liberty) is expressed through a person or a thing. An allegorical story has two meanings, one literal and one symbolic.
❇️ Nationalism and Imperialism :-
🔹 A large part of the Balkans was under the controls of the Ottoman Empire.
🔹 Each European power i.e., Germany, Russia, England, Austro-Hungary wanted to extend their control over the Balkans. This led to series of war and finally the First World War.
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