Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Notes

10 Class History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectHistory
Chapter Chapter 2
Chapter NameNationalism in India
CategoryClass 10 History Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Notes. here we will be learn about First world war, Khilafat, Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement.,Salt Satyagraha., Movements of peasants, workers, tribals., Activities of different political roups.etc

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Notes

📚 Chapter = 2 📚
💠 Nationalism in India 💠

❇️ Nationalism in India ( according to time.at a glance ) :-

  • India’s First Freedom Struggle took place in 1857.
  • In 1870 Bankim Chandra composed Vande Matram.
  • In 1885, Congress was formed in Mumbai. W.C. Banerjee chaired the first meeting of Congress.
  • In 1905, Lord Curzon proposed the division of Bengal.
  • In 1905, Abanindra Nath Tagore made a Portrait of Bharat Mata.
  • In 1906, Aaga Khan and Nawab Salimullah established Muslim League.
  • In 1907, Congress was divided into extremists and moderate.
  • In 1911, Delhi Durbar was organized.
  • Bengal Division was abolished in Delhi Durbar.
  • In Delhi Durbar capital was transferred from (Calcutta) Kolkatta to Delhi. 
  • In 1914, First World War started.
  • In 1915, Mahatama Gandhi returned to India.
  • In 1917, Mahatma Gandhi started Champaran Satyagrah in Protest of Indigo plantation.
  • In 1917, Mahatma Gandhi organized Satyagrah for farmers in Kheda Gujarat.
  • In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi started Satyagrah for Craftsman of Cotton Textile mill Gujarat.
  • 1918, the first World War ended.
  • The British Government turmed down the demand of Self rule of Indian.
  • In 1919, British Government gave Rawlatt Act.
  • On 13 April 1919, Jallianwala Bagh massacre took Place in Punjab.
  • In 1919, the Khilafat movement was started by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
  • In 1920, Mahatama Gandhi started non- cooperation movement.
  • In 1922, Mahatma Gandhi withdrew the non-cooperation movement after the violence took place at Chauri-chaura.
  • on August 9, 1925 revolutionaries in Kakori looted the train carrying English treasure.
  • In 1928, Simon Commission came to India. Lala Lajpart Rai was killed while protesting.
  • on April 8, 1929 Bhagat singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the assembly.
  • on 12 March 1930, Mahatma Gandhi started the march from Sabarmati to Dandi.
  • on 6 April 1930, Mahatma Gandhi broke the Salt Law and started Civil-disobedience Movement at Dandi.
  • In 1930, Dr. Ambedkar organized Scheduled caste into depressed Classes Association.
  • On 23rd March 1931, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru was hanged.
  • In 1931 Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed and Civil disobedience movement was suspended.
  • In 1931, Mahatma Gandhi participated in Second round table conference but did not get expected success.
  • In 1932, Poona Pact was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar.
  • In 1933, Choudhary Rahmat Ali first coined the idea of Pakistan.
  • In 1935, Indian Government Act was passed and regional government was formed.
  • 1939 World war Il was started.
  • In 1940, A resolution was passed by muslim League for seprate homeland for muslims named Pakistan.
  • In 1942, the Quit India movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi. He gave the slogan ‘Do or Die.
  • IN 1945, USA dropped nuclear Bomb on Japan and Second World War was ended.
  • In 1946, Cabinet Mission came to India with the proposal of constituent assembly.

❇️ Nationalism :-

🔹 Nationalism refers to the feeling of oneness and common consciousness that energes when people living in a common territory share the same historical, political and cultural back grounds. People may be speaking different languages (as in case of India) but the love for their na- tion keeps them together.

❇️ Factors that led to the rise of Nationalism :-

  • In Europe :- Associated with the formationa of nation states. 
  • In colonies like India , Vietnam :- Connected to the anti-colonial movement.

💠 The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement 💠

❇️ Effects of First World War :-

🔹 The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure. This was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes. Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced to raise extra revenue. 

🔹 Prices of items increased during the war years. The prices doubled between 1913 and 1918. The common people were the worst sufferers because of the price rise. Forced recruitment of rural people in the army was another cause of widespread anger amongst people. 

🔹 Crop failure in many parts of India resulted in an acute shortage of foods. Influenza epidemic further aggravated the problem. According to the 1921 census, about 12 to 13 million people died because of famines and epidemic.

💠 The Idea of Satyagraha 💠

❇️ Meaning of Satyagraha :-

🔹 It was a new mode of struggle based on truth and non violence.

❇️ Meaning of Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha :-

🔹 The method of Satyagraha was based on the idea that if someone is fighting for a true cause, there is no need to use any physical force to fight the oppressor. Gandhiji believed that a Satyagrahi could win a battle through non-violence, i.e., without being aggressive or revengeful.

❇️ Starts of Satyagraha in India by Mahatma Gandhi :-

🔹 Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. His heroic fight for the Indians in South Africa was well-known. His noble method of mass agitation known as Satyagraha has yielded good results. 

🔹 In 1917, Gandhi travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

🔹 Then in 1917, he organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. 

🔹 In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

❇️ Some early Satyagraha movements organised by Gandhiji :-

  • Peasants’ Movement in Champaran (Bihar) in 1917.
  • Peasants’ Movement in Kheda district (Gujarat) in 1917.
  • Mill workers’ Movement in Ahmedabad in 1918.

❇️ Rowlate act 1919 :-

🔶 provisions of Rowlatt Act :- 

🔹 Allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for 2 years.

🔶 Aims of Rowlatt Act :- 

🔹 To repress political activities.

🔶 Why the Rowlatt Act was Unfair :-

🔹 An Attack on civil liberties of Indians. despite the opposition of Indian members passed

🔶 Consequences of Rowlatt Act :-

  • An all India Hartal planned by M. Gandhi on 6 April 1919 against this unjust law. 
  • Rallies were orgainsed in various cities. 
  • Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
  • Shops closed down. 
  • Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar.
  • Attacks on banks. post offices and railways.

❇️ Rowlatt Act 1919 (in detail) :-

🔹 The Rowlatt Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. The Indian members did not support the Act , but it was passed nevertheless . The Act gave enormous powers to the British Government to repress political activities . It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. 

🔹 On 6th April , 1919 , Gandhiji launched a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act . The call of a strike on 6th April got a huge response . People came out in support in various cities , shops were shut down and workers in railway workshops went on strike.

🔹 The British administration decided to clamp down on the nationalists . Several local leaders were arrested . Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.

❇️ Jallianwala Bagh Incident :-

🔹 On 10th April 1919, in Amritsar, the Police fired upon a peaceful procession. This provoked widespread attacks on government establishments. Martial Law was imposed in Amritsar and the command of the area was given to General Dyer. 

🔹 The infamous (shocking) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on 13th April; the day on which Baisakhi is celebrated in Punjab. A crowd of villagers came to participate in a fair in Jallianwala Bagh. It was enclosed from all sides with narrow entry points. 

🔹 General Dyer blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed in that incident. Public reaction to the incident took a violent turn in many north Indian towns. The government was quite brutal in its response. Things turned highly violent. Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement as he did to continue the violence.

❇️ Impact of Jallianwala Bagh :-

  • Crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns. 
  • There were strikes, clashes with the police, attacks on government buildings. 
  • British government became more brutal, people were humiliated and terrorised. 
  • Satyagrahis were forced to rub their nose on the ground, crawl on the streets, do salaam (Salute) to all sahibs (British). 
  • People were flogged villages in Punjab around Gujranwala were bombed.

Note :- Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Rowlatt satyagraha movement.

❇️ Khilafat Issue :-

🔹 The Khilafat issue gave Mahatma Gandhi an opportunity to bring the Hindus and Muslims on a common platform. The Ottoman Turkey was badly defeated in the First World War. There were rumours about a harsh peace treaty likely to be imposed on the Ottoman Emperor, who was the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).

🔹 A Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 to defend the Khalifa. This committee had leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They also wanted Mahatma Gandhi to take up the cause to build a united mass action. 

🔹 At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, the resolution was passed to launch a Non-Cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat and also for Swaraj.

❇️ Why did Mahatma Gandhi took up Khilafat Issue :-

🔹 M. Gandhi wanted to launch an all India movement more broad based affer the failure of Rowlatt Satyagraha. 

🔹 He was certain that no all India movement could be organised without bringing Hindus and Muslims closer together so he took up the Khilafat issue.

❇️ Hind Swaraj :-

🔹 The famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi, which emphasized the non-cooperation of British rule in India.

❇️ Non-Cooperation Movement :-

🔹 In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909), Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. 

🔹 If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would be established. Gandhiji believed that if Indians begin to refuse to cooperate, the British rulers will have no other way than to leave India.

❇️ Reasons for the non-cooperation movement :-

  • Atrocities on Indians after World War Ist.
  • Refusal of demand of Swaraj. 
  • Passing of Rowlatt Act.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • Congress passed resolution on Non Cooperation Movement with thumping majority.

❇️ proposals of Non-Cooperation Movement :-

  • Surrender the titles which were awarded by the British Government. 
  • Boycott of Civil Services, Army, Police, Courts, Legislative Councils and Schools. 
  • Boycott of foreign goods. 
  • Launch full Civil Disobedience campaign, if the government persisted with repressive measures.

❇️ Sessions of the congress to start NCM :- 

  • September 1920 to convince other leaders ( calcutta ) 
  • December 1920 ( Nagpur ) to adopt it .

❇️ Different strands within the Movement :-

  • Various social groups participated in the non – cooperation move ment but each with its own specific aspiration / demand .
  • The term ‘ Swaraj ‘ meant different thing to different people . 
  • Each Social group participating in the movement imagined ‘ Swaraj ‘ as a time when all their sufferings and troubles would be over .

❇️ Awadh :- 

🔹 The Peasants’ Movement in Awadh was led by Baba Ramchandra. He was a Sanyasi who had earlier worked in Fiji as an indentured labourer. The peasants were against the high rents and many other cesses, which were demanded by talukdars and landlords. The peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of the begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

❇️ Tribal Peasants :-

🔹 Tribal peasants gave their own interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj. The tribals were prevented from entering the forests to graze cattle or to collect fruits and firewood. The new forest laws were posing threats to their livelihoods. The government forced them to do the begar on road construction. Many rebels from the tribal areas became violent and often carried guerrilla warfare against the British Officials. 

❇️ Swaraj in the Plantations :-

🔹  The plantation workers were prevented from leaving the tea gardens without permission, as per the Inland Emigration Act of 1859. When the news of Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the plantations, many workers began to defy the authorities. They left plantations and headed towards their homes. But they got stranded on the way because of a railway and steamer strike. They were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.

❇️ Swaraj :-

🔹 “Swaraj” means Freedom or Self-rule. In 1920, “Swaraj” meant “Self-Government” within the empire if possible and outside if necessary.

❇️ End of the movement :-

🔹 In February 1922, the movement was withdrawn by Gandhi Ji due to Chaui Chaura Incitent.

💠 Towards Civil Disobedience 💠

❇️ Simon Commission :-

🔹 The British Government constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon. The Commission was made to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. But since all the members in the Commission were British, the Indian leaders opposed the Commission. 

🔹 The Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’. All parties joined the protest. In October 1929, Lord Irwin announced a vague offer of ‘Dominion Status’ for India but its timing was not specified. He also offered to hold Round Table Conference to discuss the future Constitution.

❇️ Salt March (Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement) :-

🔹 Mahatma Gandhi believed that salt could be a powerful symbol to unite the whole nation. Most of the people, including the British scoffed at the idea. Abolition of the salt tax was among many demands which were raised by Gandhiji through a letter to Viceroy Irwin.

  • The Salt March or Dandi March was started by Gandhiji on 12th March, 1930. 
  • He was accompanied by 78 volunteers. 
  • They walked for 24 days to cover a distance of 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi. 
  • Many more joined them on the way. 
  • On 6th April, 1930, Gandhiji ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing a fistful of salt.

🔹 The Salt March marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Thousands of people broke the salt law in different parts of the country. People demonstrated in front of government salt factories. Foreign cloths boycotted. Peasants refused to officials resigned. Tribal people violated forest laws.

❇️ Salt Law :-

🔹 Salt is consumed by both the poor and the rich, and is one of the most essential items of foods everywhere in the world. The British Government had a monopoly on the production of salt in India. By imposing a ‘salt tax’ the Government hit both the rich and the poor, especially the poor. Gandhiji thought it was the most repressive Act of the British Government and chose to defy it by breaking the “Salt Law”. 

❇️ Gandhi-Irwin Pact :-

🔹 When the British Government responded with a policy of brutal repression against the Civil Disobedience Movement, Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the movement. He entered into a pact with Lord Irwin on 5th March, 1931. Under this pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London.

❇️ Participants of the movement :-

  • Rich peasants :- against high revenue 
  • Poor peasants :- against high rent and high-revenue 
  • Business classes :- against colonial business policies. 
  • Women :- Moved by Gandhi jis call. 
  • Workers in some places.

❇️ Reaction of the British governments :- 

  • Arresting of congress leaders one by one. 
  • Policy of brutal repression.
  • Peaceful Satyagrahis were attacked.
  • Women and children were beate.
  • Around 100,000 arrests

❇️ features of Civil Disobedience movement. 

  • Movement started with Salt March.
  • Thousands broke salt law.
  • Foreign clothes boycotted .
  • Liquor shops were picketed.
  • Peasants refused to pay taxes.

❇️ How was this different from Non cooperation Movement?

🔹 People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, but also to break colonial laws.

❇️ role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement :-

  • Women participation was in large scale.
  • Participated in protest marches, manufactured salt.
  • Picketed foreign cloths and liquor shops. 
  • Began to see service to the nation as their sacred duty.

❇️ Limits of Civl disobedience movement :-

  • Non participation of Dalits as for long congress had ignored the demands of scheduled castes. 
  • Lukewarm (Not very enthusiastic) response of the muslim political organisations as they felt from the mid 1920’s the congress was coming closer to Hindu Nationalist groups like Hindu Mahasabhe.
  • An atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between two communities.

❇️ The Sense of Collective Belonging :-

🔹 Factors that developed the reuse of collective belonging and united all Indians.

🔶 Figure or image :- Image of Bharat Mata first created by Bankim Chandra. This image helped people in ldentifying the nation.

🔶 Folklore :- Nationalists began gathering and recording folktale as they Presented our true culture and helped discover ones national Identity and restore a reuse of pride in past.

🔶 Icon and Symbols : Forex Flag :- Tricolors flag first developed during Swadeshi movement (1921) in Bengal which had 8 lotuses. By 1921 Gandhi ji had designed the Swaraj Flag. carrying the flag became a symbol of defiance.

🔶 Reinterpretation of History :- Many Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements and urged Indians to take pride in India’s past and struggle against British.

🔶 Song like ‘Vande Mataram :- In 1870’s Bankim Chandra wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland and was widely sung during Swadeshi movement.

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