Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Notes

10 Class History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectHistory
Chapter Chapter 4
Chapter NameThe Age of Industrialisation
CategoryClass 10 History Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Notes. here we will be learn about Pre-industrialization, Speed ​​of industrialization, Life of workers, Textile industry in India, Unique point of industrialization Etc.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Notes

📚 Chapter = 4 📚
💠 The Age of Industrialisation💠

❇️ Industrialization :-

🔹 It is the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods.

❇️ Orient :-

🔹 The countries to the east of the Mediterranean, usually referring to Asia. The term arises out of a western viewpoint that sees this region as pre- modern, traditional and mysterious

❇️ Proto :- 

🔹 Indicating the first or early form of something published.

❇️ Proto-Industrialization :-

🔹 Proto-Industrialization was the stage when large scale industrial production took place in the absence of modern factories for the International Market.

🔹 This Proto-industrial system was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.

❇️ Beginņing of Industrial Revolution :-

🔹 In the 17″and 18″centuries, Merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the Countryside, Supplying Money to Peasants and Artisans, persuading them to produce for an International Market.

❇️ Staples :-

🔹 A person who ‘Staples’ or sorts wool according to fibre.

❇️ Fuller :-

🔹 A person who ‘Fulls’ that it gathers cloth by pleating. 

❇️ Carding :-

🔹 The process in when fibres such as cotton or wool are prepared prior to spinning.

❇️ The Coming Up of the Factory :-

🔹 The earliest factories in England came up by the 1730s. In the early 19thcentury, factories increasingly became an intimate part of the English landscape.

🔹 First symbol of this new era was cotton.

🔹 In 1760 Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton and by 1787 this import soared to 22 million pounds. 

🔹 Factors that made it possible : Series of inventions and changes within the process of production.

🔹 All the processes of production were brought under one roof and management.

❇️ The Pace of Industrial Change :-

🔶 FIRST Phase :- Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization up to the 1840s. Iron and steel Industries grew rapidly with the expansion of railways in England from 1840’s and from 1860’s in Colonies.

🔶 SECOND Phase :- New Industries however could not easily displace the existing tradi- tional Industries. By the end of 19th century less than 20% of total workforce was employed in the Industrial sector.

🔶 THIRD Phase :- Other traditional Industries were much less influenced by the steam powered or metal Industries. However they did not remain stagnant either. Ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sector.

🔶 FOURTH Phase :- technological changes occurred slowly because: 

  • The New technology was expensive. 
  • The machines often broke down and repair was costly. 
  • They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

❇️ Reasons of process of industrialization was rapid :-

  • Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization. 
  • Textile was a dynamic sector. 
  • Ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glasswork, tanning, furniture making and production of implements. 
  • Technological changes occurred slowly. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape.

❇️ Why new industrialist could not displace traditional industries ?

  • Number of people working in industries was less. 
  • Slow changes in technology. 
  • Cloth industry was dynamic.
  • Technology was expensive. 
  • Alarge part of production was done in Handlooms.

❇️ Hand Labour and Steam Power :-

  • In Victorian Britain There was no shortage of human lalour so wages were low.
  • Industrialists did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment.
  • Demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specifics shapes which could be produced by hand only.
  • A range of products could be produced only with hand labour Machines produced goods for a mass market.

❇️ Life of the Workesrs :-

  • Overall the life of the workers was miserable. 
  • Scarcity of jobs because of abundance of labor in the market. 
  • Actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing net work of friendship and kin relations. 
  • Most of the work was seasonal so prolonged periods without work. 
  • Real wages fell so poverty increased among workers. 
  • Fear of underployment made workers hostile to the new technology and machines were attacked by the workers.
  • After 1840’s rise in employment opportunities due to increase in building activities, widening of roads, digging of tunnels, laying of drainage, sewer etc.

❇️ Why did some industrialists in the nineteenth century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ?

  • There was no dearth of Human labour. 
  • They did not want to install new machines because it required more capital investment. 
  • For seasonal industry it was better to employ hand labour. 
  • There was a demand for fine intricate work in the market which could only be fulfilled handicrafts. 

❇️ Spinning Jenny :-

🔹 This machine was invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. It speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand.

💠 Industrialisation in the Colonies 💠

🔹 Let us now move to India to see how a colony industrialises.

❇️ The Age of Indian Textiles :-

🔶 Before the age of Machine Industries :-

  • Silk and cotton goods from India dominated the International market. 
  • Finer varieties came from India Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from India to Afghanistan Persia and central Asia.
  • Surat, Masulipatam and Hoogly were the famous ports.
  • A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade.
  • Two types of merchants : Supply merchants and export merchants.
  • At the ports the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants.

🔶 After the age of Machine Industries (1750’s onwards) 

  • By 1750’s the trade network controlled by Indian merchants was breaking down.
  • The European companies gained power.
  • Decline of old ports of surat and hoolgy .
  • Bombay and calcutta grew as new ports.
  • New trade was contracted by europe on companies are carried in Europeanship. 
  • No decline in textile exports from India Initially.
  • Indian textile were still in great demand in 18th century Europe.

❇️ What happned to weavers : After stablishing Political Control by East India Company :- 

  • East India company 1760’s on wards established its monopoly over Indian trade.
  • The existing traders and brokers were eliminated and direct control over the weaver was established. 
  • Weavers were prevented from dealing with other buyers. 
  • A paid servant Gomashta was appointed to supervise weavers. Re- ports of clashes between Gomashtas and weavers. 
  • The price weavers received from the company was miserably low.

❇️ Gomasthas :-

🔹 They were the paid servants who were appointed by the East India Company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.

❇️ Manchester Comes to India :-

🔹 Due to the development of cotton industries in England, the industrial groups worried about the imports from the other countries and thus, pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles. 

🔹 The Industrialists also persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactured goods in Indian Markets as well. 

🔹 Cotton Weavers in India faced two problems at the same time :- 

  • Their export market collapsed. 
  • The local market shrank due to Manchester imports. 

🔹 When the Civil War broke out, cotton supplies were cut off from the US and thus, Britain turned towards India. 

🔹 The raw cotton exports from India increased which led to the inflation. It affected the weavers who were starved of supplies and were forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices.

❇️ How did the advent of Manchester create problems for Indian Weavers?

  • Decrease in export of India. 
  • Pressure on East India Company to see cloth. 
  • Low Cost. 
  • Shrinking of local markets. 
  • Non availability of good quality cotton fibre.

❇️ Factories Come Up :-

  • The First Cotton Mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later.
  • Around the same time jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855. 
  • In north India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s and a year later the First Cotton Mill of Ahmedabad was set up. 

❇️ The Early Entrepreneurs :-

  • From the late eighteenth century, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. 
  • In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune from the trade with China before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
  • In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata built huge industrial empires in India by accumulating their wealth partly from exports to China and partly from Raw Cotton Shipments to England.

❇️ Where Did the Workers Come From :-

  • Workers mainly came from the districts around.
  • Mainly peasants and workers who found no working rural India. 
  • For ex. in Bombay cotton Industries workers from Ratnagiri district

❇️ Condition of the Indian workers :-

  • Most of the mill workers were temporarily implode returned to then village during harvests .
  • Jobbers often controlled the lives of workers.

❇️ Jobber :-

🔹 A person employed by the industrialists to get new recruits for the mills.

❇️ Role of Jobbers :-

🔹 Industrialists usually employed jobbers to get new recruits. They became persons with some authority and power. They were old and trusted workers. They got people from their villages. They ensured them jobs. They helped them to settle in the city. They also provided them money in times of crisis.

❇️ The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth :-

🔹 European managing agencies, which doninated Industrial prodution were interested in producing only those goods which were required for export trade and not for sale in India. For ex. tea, coffee, Indigo, Jute, mining.

🔹 Indian businessmen set up those Industties (in late 19th century) which would not compete with manchester goods. For ex. Yearn was not imported so early cotton mills produced yarn rather than fabric.

🔹 First decade of 20th century pattern of Industrialisation changed. 

🔹 Swadeshi movement (1905) mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth so textile production began in India Moreover yarn export to China declined so Industrialists shifted from Yarn to cloth produc- tion. Cotten piece goods production doubled between 1900 and 1912.

🔹 First world war gave a boost Industrial production in India. New fac- tories were set up in India as British mills were busy with war pro- duction.

❇️ Small Scale Industries Predominate :-

🔹 Even after the growth of factories, very few Industrial centres lo- cated mainly in Bengal and Bombay.

🔹 Only a small proportion of the total Industrial labour worked in facto- ries. 5% in 1911 and 10% in 1931. Rest worked in small work- shops and household units.

🔹 Series of inventions improved the technique of production in handloom sector and handloom cloth production expanded steadily. One such invention was flyshutfle.

🔹 Some specialised weaves could not be produced by mills so they were continued to be produced by weavers. For ex. Saris with wo- ven borders, lungis and handkerchief of Madras. 

🔹 Some groups of weavers survived the competition with mill Indus- tries better than others for example weavers weaving fives variety of clothes because demand for these goods did not fluctuate even during bad harvest years.

❇️ Fly shuttle :-

🔹 It is a mechanical device used for weaving, moved by means of ropes and pullies. It places the horizontal threads (called the weft) into the verticle threads (called the warp). The invention of the fly shuttle made it possible for weavers to operate large looms and weave wide pieces of cloth.

❇️ the importance of Advertisement in the Marketing of the goods :-

  • Advertisements play a very vital role in the marketing of any product. One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements. 
  • Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. 
  • They try to shape the minds of the people and create new needs. 
  • Today, we live in a world where advertisements surround us. They appear in the newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls and television screens. 
  • From the very beginning of the industrial age; advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products and in shaping a new consumer culture.
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