9 Class Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes
|Pastoralists in the Modern World
|Class 9 History Notes
Pastoralists in the modern world class 9 notes, Class 9 history chapter 5 notes In which we will read about Nomads , Pastoralists , Bhabar , Bugyal , Kharif crop , Rabi Crop etc.
Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes
📚 Chapter = 5 📚
💠 Pastoralists in the Modern World 💠
❇️ Nomads :-
🔹 Nomads are the people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.
🔹 Nomadic pastoralists move in group known as ‘Caravan’ or ‘Kafila’.
❇️ Pastoralists :-
🔹 Pastoralists’ are the people who breeds and takes care of animals.
❇️ Bhabar :-
🔹 Bhabar is an area of dry forest below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun region.
❇️ Bugyal :-
🔹 The vast meadows in the high mountains are called Bugyal.
❇️ Kharif crop :-
🔹 “The crop that is sown in the beginning of the rainy season. And is harvested at the beginning of the winter season ‘ is called Kharif crop. Like – rice etc.
❇️ Rabi Crop :-
🔹 The crop which is sown at the beginning of winter season and harvested at the beginning of summer is called ‘Rabi Crop. For example, wheat, pulses etc.
❇️ Some of the important pastoral nomads in India and world :-
💠 INDIA 💠
|Name of pastoral nomadic community
|Jammu and Kashmir
|Rajasthan , Madhya Pradesh
|KURUMAS, KURUBAS, GOLLAS
|Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh , Telangana
💠 WORLD 💠
|Name of pastoral nomadic community
|North- Western Africa
❇️ Reason for movement of the Nomadic pastoralists :-
They don’t have regular field to get food for the whole year.
In search of pasture and water for their animals.
To protect themselves from harsh weather condition.
To protect their livestock from harsh weather.
❇️ Changes and its effects in the life of nomadic pastoralists under the colonial rule :-
🔶 Changes :-
Colonial govt. converted pasture land into agricultural land to increase land revenue.
Forest acts were introduced to categorise forest and their products.
Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871.
To maximise the revenue colonial govt imposed tax on land, canal water, salt, trade and even on animals.
🔶 Impact :-
Decline of pasture land made their life difficult and number of livestock decline.
Movement of pastoralists were severely restricted and entry was regulated by permit and fine was imposed on violation.
They were branded as criminal and can live in notified areas only under extreme surveillance of local police, movement was restricted by permit system.
Each one was given pass. To enter a grazing tract a cattle herder had to show the pass and pay taxes making life difficult.
❇️ Coping with the changes :-
They reduced the number of cattle in their herd,
Changed their direction of movement
Some began buying land and settling down
Some took to more extensive trading
Some lost their livestock and became labourer
❇️ Movement Of Pastoral Nomads In Mountains :-
🔹 Mainly pastoral communities are found in mountainous regions.
🔶 Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir :-
🔹 Gujjar Bakarwals migrated to Jammu and Kashmir in the 19th century in search of pastures for their animals.
🔹 The Gujjar Bakarwals are herders of goat and sheep. During the winter when the Himalayas are covered with snow, they live in the foothills of the Siwalik ranges. The dry scrubs provide food for their cattle.
🔹 When the summer begins in April, the Gujjar Bakarwals move northwards to the Kashmir valley. As the snow melts, the mountains are covered with lush green grass which provides nutritious forage for their cattle. With the onset of winter, the Gujjar Bakarwals again travel down to the low hills of Himalayas.
❇️ Gaddi Shepherds :-
🔹 Gaddi shepherd is a pastoral community of Himachal Pradesh. They had a similar cycle of seasonal movements like Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir.
❇️ Movement Of Gaddi Shepherds of Himachal Pradesh :-
🔹 The Gaddi shepherds also follow the same movement as that of the Gujjar Bakarwals. They spend winter with their cattle in the foothills of the Siwaliks. When the snow melts, they move northwards into Lahaul and Spiti.
🔹 They then move further to the high mountains in order to find pasturelands for their cattle. They begin retreating in September.
❇️ Gujjars in Garhwal and Kumaon :-
🔹 The Gujjars come down to the dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaon to graze their cattle. During the summer, they go up high to the meadows in the high mountains.
🔹 These pastoral communities make the best use of available pastures in different lands. Whenever the pastures exhausted, they moved to new areas. This movement helped the exhausted pasture lands to recover.
❇️ On The Plateaus, Plains And Deserts :-
🔹 The pastoral communities are also found in the plateaus, plains and deserts of India.
🔶 Dhangars in Maharashtra :-
🔹 The Dhangars are an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. They are shepherds, blanket weavers and buffalo herders.
🔹 The Dhangars stay in the central plateau in Maharashtra during the monsoon. The rainy season allows them to graze their cattle and harvest bajra sown by them.
🔹 In November, they reach the Konkan region which is a fertile agricultural tract. The farmers in the Konkan welcome them because the cattle of the Dhangars graze on the fields and provide manure to them.
🔹 Their fields thus become ready for the sowing of rabi crops. The Dhangars return to their dry fields on the onset of the monsoon in the Konkan.
❇️ The Goras, the Kurumas :-
🔹 the Kurubas in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh rear sheep and goat and sell woven blankets. These pastoral communities move from the dry lands to the coastal communities based on the onset of the monsoon. These communities leave the area in the rainy season.
❇️ Banjaras :-
🔹 The Banjaras are a nomadic group which live in the villages of Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Banjaras move with their cattle over long distances in search of pasturelands. They also sell plough cattle and other goods to villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.
❇️ Raikas :-
🔹 The Raikas live in the deserts of Rajasthan. Because the desert lands cannot be extensively cultivated, the Raikas combine cultivation with pastoralism. They stay in their villages during the monsoon as grass is available for their cattle.
🔹 In October, they move out in search of pasture and water and return to their villages the next year during the monsoon. Different groups of Raikas herd camels, goats and sheep.
❇️ Which several factors pastoralists move from one place to other places :-
🔹 The pastoralists move from one place to the other based on several factors. They calculate the timings of their movements. They have to move through different terrains and they establish relations with the farmers while moving. They also combine a range of various activities such as trade, herding and cultivation to make a living.
❇️ Pastoralists under the Colonial Rule :-
🔹 The lives of the pastoralists changed considerably under the colonial rule in the following ways:
🔹 Because the Government wanted to transform all grazing lands into the agricultural lands to increase their revenues, the pastoralist lands were changed to agricultural lands. Thus, the pastoralist lands shrank considerably.
🔹 Various Forest Acts were passed in the nineteenth century. These Acts declared many forests as reserved forests. Further, the pastoralists had to take permission from the Government to graze their cattle in the protected forests. The movements of the pastoral communities were thus restricted, regulated and watched over. They could not spend more than the stipulated number of days which were granted to them in the forests.
🔹 The British administrators were suspicious of nomadic pastoralists. They wanted these communities to settle at one place and take up agriculture. Nomads came to be regarded as criminals. By the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871, the nomadic communities came to be regarded as criminals.
🔹 The British Government taxed almost every commodity in order to increase its revenues. So, taxes were imposed even on cattle. Pastoralists had to pay taxes on every animal which grazed in the pastures.
❇️ How pastoralists coped with the changes :-
🔹 The pastoralists coped with the changes. While some reduced the number of cattle which they owned, some discovered new grazing lands. Rich pastoralists brought lands and settled at one place. However, many poor pastoralists got into the vicious cycle of debt and lost their cattle.
❇️ Pastoralism in Africa :-
🔹 In Africa, at present, more than 22 million of African population depend on pastoral activity for earning their livelihood. Some pastoral communities are the Bedouins, Maasai, Somali, Turkana and Berbers. Members of these communities raise their cattle for selling milk, wool and hides. They also combine pastoral activities with cultivation.
❇️ The Maasai Pastoralists :-
🔹 The Maasai pastoralists mainly live in East Africa. They mostly inhabit the parts of Tanzania and Kenya.
❇️ problems faced by the Maasai pastoralists :-
🔹 The following problems have been faced by the Maasai pastoralists :-
The Maasai pastoralists face continuous problems of grazing lands. European imperial powers divided Maasailand between England and Germany. The grazing lands were taken over by the colonists. Thus, the Maasai lost more than half of their grazing lands.
The British Government encouraged local farming communities to expand cultivation. Thus, the pastoral lands were changed to agricultural fields.
Large patches of pastoral lands were also changed to reserves such as Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park. The entry of the Maasai was restricted in these reserves.
This created pressure on small pieces of land where the pastoralists grazed their cattle. Fodder always remained in short supply.
Many other pastoral communities in Africa also faced such problems. The exhaustion of pasturelands affected the lives of their cattle. The pastoral communities were not allowed to move into other territories without valid permits.
Pastoralists were also not allowed to enter the markets in the white areas.
Dying of pastures and restrictions imposed on the movements of Maasai pastoralists led to a steep decline in the number of cattle, sheep and goats owned by Maasai pastoralists.
❇️ Division of the Maasai Communities :-
🔹 In the pre-colonial period, the Maasai society was divided into two social categories-the elders and the warriors. While the elders looked after the administration of the clan, the warriors were responsible for the protection of the tribe.
🔹 The Maasai warriors also conducted organised cattle raids.
🔹 The British appointed chiefs of the different sub-groups of Maasai who were responsible for maintaining the administration of the state.
🔹 The British also imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare. This affected the authority of the elders and the warriors.
🔹 The chiefs appointed by the British accumulated wealth over time. They began to lend money, started trading and settled in towns. The families of the chiefs stayed behind in the villages to look after cattle. This helped them to survive droughts and famines.
🔹 However, the poor pastoralists had no money and only their cattle to live on. During droughts, they almost lost everything. They then moved to the towns in search of work. Many of them got regular work in road and building construction.
🔹 The division of the Maasai communities into the rich and the poor and the disturbing of the traditional differences based on age were two social changes which occurred in the Maasai communities during the colonial rule.
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