12 Class Political Science Chapter 6 International Organisations Notes
Class 12 political science chapter 6 notes, International organisations class 12 notes here we will be learn about Principal Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion etc.
❇️ UN Charter : –
🔹 UN Charter It is a Constitution of UN to deal with the objectives of the UN.
❇️ Peacekeeping Operation : –
🔹 Peacekeeping Operation A mechanism for restoring peace and security by sending UN controlled troops in the affected arca.
❇️ World Bank : –
🔹 World Bank It is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to member countries particularly developing nations.
❇️ Veto : –
🔹 Veto It is a negative vote to be enjoyed by five permanent members of Security Council to stop a decision.
❇️ Unipolar World : –
🔹 Unipolar World It is that order in which one state exercises most of the cultural, economic and military influence.
❇️ Secretary General : –
🔹 Secretary General A representative head of the UN to prepare an annual record of the UN activities.
❇️ United Nations : –
🔹 United Nations is the most important International Organisation. It helps countries to enhance co-operation and make better living conditions for all.
❇️ History Of United Nations : –
🔹 After the First World War League of Nations was born to deal with conflicts within nations. The League of Nations was founded on 10th January, 1920 as a result of Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. This was the first International Organisation whose main objective was to maintain world peace.
🔹 However, despite its initial success, it could not prevent the Second World War. The United Nations was founded as a successor to the League of Nations in 1945 immediately after the Second World War.
🔹 It was set up through the signing of the United Nations Charter by 51 states on 24th October, 1945. It tried to achieve which league could not achieve between the two world wars.
❇️ Founding of the United Nations : –
🔸 August 1941 Signing of the Atlantic Charter by the US President Franklin D Roosevelt and British PM Winston S. Churchill.
🔸 January 1942 26 Allied nations fighting against the Axis Powers meet in Washington, DC, to support the Atlantic Charter and sign the Declaration by United Nations.
🔸 December 1943 Tehran Conference Declaration of the Three Powers (US, Britain and Soviet Union).
🔸 February 1945 Yalta Conference of the ‘Big Three’ (Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin) decides to organise a United Nations conference on the proposed world organisation.
🔸 April-May The 2-month long United Nations Conference on International Organisation at San Francisco.
🔸 26th June, 1945 Signing of the UN Charter by 50 nations (Poland signed on October 15; so the UN has 51 original founding members).
🔸 24th October, 1945 The UN was founded (hence October 24 is celebrated as UN Day).
🔸 30th October, 1945 India joins the UN.
❇️ Members of UN : –
🔹 The UN had 193 member states by 2011 (Last added South Sudan) which included almost all independent states with one vote each in the UN General Assembly.
🔹 There are five permanent members in the UN Security Council and they are, the United Nations, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China. These five members were chosen as a permanent member because they emerged powerful after the Second World War.
❇️ UN Secretary-General : –
🔹 The most visible public figure of UN is the representative head i.e. the Secretary-General. The present and the ninth Secretary General of UN is Antonio Guterres. He took over as the Secretary General on 1st January, 2017. He was the Prime Minister of Portugal (1995-2002) and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2005-2015).
❇️ Reform of the UN After the Cold War : –
- The two basic reforms faced by the UN are:-
🔸 (i) Reforms of Structures and Processes The biggest discussion on the reform of structures and processes was the functioning of the Security Council. To better reflect the realities of the contemporary world politics, in the structure of the organisation, there was demand for an increase in the UN Security Council’s permanent and non permanent membership. In particular, there are proposals to increase membership from Asia, Africa and South America. The US and other Western countries want improvements in the UN’s budgetary procedures and its administration.
🔸 (ii) Reform of a Review of the Subjects that Falls Under its Jurisdiction There was differences on the issues to be given greater priority within the jurisdiction of the UN. Some countries and experts wanted the organisation to play a greater or more effective role in peace and security missions, while others wanted its role to be confined to development and humanitarian works such as, health, education, environment, population control, human rights, gender and social justice.
❇️ World politics change after the Second World War : –
🔹 Therefore, the UN was established immediately after the Second World War in 1945. It was organised and operated in such a way that it reflected the reality of world politics after the Second World War. Following changes occurred in world politics :-
- The Soviet Union had collapsed and the US became the strongest power.
- There was much more cooperative relationship between Russia, the successor to the Soviet Union and the US.
- China-emerging fast as a great power and India is also growing rapidly.
- The economies of Asia are growing at an unprecedented rate.
- Many new countries joined the UN. As they became from the Soviet Union or former Communist states in Eastern Europe.
- The world now faces whole new set of issues (genocide, civil war, ethnic conflict, terrorism, nuclear proliferation, climate change, degradation, epidemics).
❇️ Eligibility For Permanent Membership Of UN Security Council : –
🔹 Some of the criteria for a new member is : –
- It should be a major economic power and military power.
- A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
- A big nation in terms of its population and a nation that respects democracy and human rights.
- A country that would make the council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of gegraphy, economic systems and culture.
❇️ Issues in UN Security Council : –
- Different governments saw advantages in some criteria and disadvantages in others depending on their interests and aspirations. Some of the issues were : –
🔹 There was an issue to change the nature of membership.
🔹 There were five permanent and ten non-permanent members in the Security Council. Permanent members had two priveleges ie permanency and veto power. Whereas, the non permanent members serve for only two years at a time.
🔹 The non permanent members are elected in a manner so that they represent all the continents of the world.
🔹 Non permanent members does not have veto power. By veto power we mean that if a permanent member cast a vote in a negative manner then it may state the decision. Without veto power, there is danger that the great powers would lose interest in the world body and without their support the body would be in effective.
❇️ World Bank : –
🔹 The World Bank was created during the Second World War in 1944. Its activities are focused on the developing countries. It works for human development (education, health), agriculture and rural development (irrigation, rural services), environmental protection (pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), Infrastructure (roads, urban regeneration, electricity) and governance (anti-corruption, development of legal institutions).
🔹 It provides loans and grants to the member-countries. In this way, it exercises enormous influence on the economic policies of developing countries. It is often criticised for setting the economic agenda of the poorer nations, attaching stringent conditions to its loans and forcing free market reforms.
❇️ Jurisdiction of the UN : –
🔹 The heads of all the members-states met in September 2005 to celebrate the anniversary of the United Nations and to review the situation. In this meeting, the leaders decided that some steps should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context. Following recommendations were made:-
❇️ Work of Jurisdiction of the UN : –
- Creation of Peacebuilding Commission.
- To protect their own citizens the countries should accept the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of nation governments.
- Establishment of a Human Rights Council.
- Agreement to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
- Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
- To create a Democracy Fund.
- An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
❇️ World Trade Organisation (WTO) : –
🔹 The WTO is an international organisation which sets the rules for global trade. This organisation was set up in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) created after the Second World War.
🔹 It has 164 members (as on 29 July 2016). All decisions are taken unanimously but the major economic powers such as the US, EU and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame rules of trade to advance their own interests. The developing countries often complain of non-transparent procedures and being pushed around by big powers.
❇️ The UN in A Unipolar World : –
- Influence of the United States of America is very powerful and widespread. This can be understood with the help of following points.
🔹 Many countries believed that the reform and restructuring of the UN could help the UN cope better with a unipolar world in which the US was the most powerful counry. After the disintegration of USSR, the US stands as the only superpower hence US power connot be easily checked.
🔹 The influence of the US is considerable within the UN. The US has unmatched financial power, the fact that the UN is physically located within the US territory gives Washington additional sources of influence. Thus, UN can also stop any moves that it finds annoying or damaging to its interests or the unterests of its friends and allies with its veto power.
🔹 The power of the US and its veto within the organisation also ensure that Washington has a considerable degree of say in the choice of the Secretary General of the UN. The US can and does use this power to ‘split’ the rest of the world and to reduce opposition to its policies. Therefore, UN is not a great balance to the US.
🔹 Nevertheless, in a unipolar world in which the US is dominant, the UN can and has served to bring the US and the rest of the world into discussions over various issues.
❇️ Amnesty International : –
🔹 Amnesty International is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world. It promotes respect for all the human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It believes that human rights are interdependent and indivisible. It prepares and publishes reports on human rights.
🔹 Governments are not always happy with these reports since a major focus of Amnesty is the misconduct of government authorities. Nevertheless, these reports play an important role in research and advocacy on human rights.
❇️ Human Rights Watch : –
🔹 Human Rights Watch is another international NGO involved in research and advocacy on human rights. It is the largest international human rights organisation in the US. It draws the global media’s attention to human rights abuses.
🔹 It helped in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban landmines, to stop the use of child soldiers and to establish the International Criminal Court.
❇️ UN Agencies : –
🔹 The UN has various structures and agencies. The conflicts between the states are discussed both in General Assembly and Security Council. Many agencies deal with the social and economic issues such as the : –
- World Health Organisations (WHO),
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
- United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC),
- United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR),
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
🔹 and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) among.
❇️ UNESCO : –
🔹 The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) was established on 4th November, 1946. Its headquarter is located in Paris, France. It is a special body of the United Nations whose main objective is to promote education, natural science, society and anthropology, culture and communication.
🔹 During past several years, the special work done by UNESCO has been to promote literacy, technical and educational training and independent media, etc. all across its member nations.
❇️ Objectives of UNESCO : –
🔹 The objectives of UNESCO are as following : –
- To access quality of education for everyone.
- To actively provide the knowledge of science and policies for sustainable development.
- To address the challenges, whether it be social or ethical.
- It attempts to build a culture of peace in diversity and intercultural dialogue of harmony.
- To establish knowledge societies with the help of information and communication.
❇️ Functions of UNESCO : –
🔹 The major functions of UNESCO are : –
- To contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations. This is done through education, science, culture and communication.
- It believes in education being a basic human right, so it encourages education among children.
- UNESCO devotes a large portion of funds to basic research in developing countries.
- It provides assistance and international cooperation among artists, scientists and scholars.
❇️ UNICEF : –
🔹 The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was created by the UN general assembly during its first session in 1946 to help the emergency needs of the children in post was Europe.
🔹 In 1950, its programme was extended to provide long-range benefits to children of all developing countries. Later on its name was changed to United Nations Children’s Fund.
🔹 However, its acronym UNICEF continued. UNICEF is governed by 36-member Executive Board. It has its headquarter in New York and has more than 200 officers.
❇️ Objectives of UNICEF : –
🔹 The main objectives of UNICEF are : –
- To look after children’s welfare especially in developing countries.
- To provide people with low cost community based services in maternal and child health, nutrition and immunisation, etc.
- It also helps and encourages the work that promote children’s health and better life in all parts of the world.
❇️ Functions of UNICEF : –
🔹 UNICEF provides services in primary health-care nutrition, basic education, sanitation and women’s development in developing countries. The main functions of UNICEF are broadly divided into the following categories : –
It works for the protection of children in respect of their survival, health and well being.
This is done in cooperation with individuals, civic groups, governments and the private sector.
It provides funds for training the personnel, including health and sanitation workers, teachers and nutritionists. Universal Child Immunisations against preventable diseases by 1990 was one of the leading goals of UNICEF.
It provides technical supplies, equipment and other aids, ranging from paper for textbooks to equipments and medicines to health clinics to pipes and pumps for bringing clean water to villages.
It assists governments to plan, develop and extend community-based services in the fields of maternal and child healths, nutrition, clean water and sanitation.
It provides help to children and mothers in emergencies arising from natural calamities, civil strifes and epidemics.
It makes effort to prevent diseases like T.B, malaria, eye diseases, skin diseases, etc.
🔹 UNICEF performs various other functions. As the role agency for children, it speaks on behalf of children and upholds the convention on the Rights of the child and work for its implementation. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel prize for peace in the year 1965 and the Indira Gandhi Peace Price in 1989.
❇️ World Health Organisation (WHO) : –
🔹 The World Health Organisation (WHO) is the United Nation specialised agency for health. It was established on 7th April, 1948 when 26 members of the United Nations notified its Constitution. Also World Health Day is celebrated on 7th April.
❇️ Objectives of WHO : –
🔹 The objectives of WHO are : –
- To attainment of the highest possible level of health by all people.
- Health is defined in WHO’s constitution as a state of complete well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
- To raise awareness of the extent of illness, suffering and death among mothers and children and its impact on health as well as social and economic development.
- When pertaining to health issues it creates an interface between the developed and developing nations.
❇️ Functions of WHO : –
🔹 The functions performed by WHO are : –
It helps the countries to improve their health system by building up infrastructure especially manpower, institutions and services for the individual and community.
It gives important drugs needed for medical care. The WHO launched a programme to immunise children against six major diseases Measles, Diptheria, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Polio and whooping cough.
It promotes research to cure and prevent diseases. For example, it arranged for the investigation of cancer and heart diseases in laboratories in many countries to identify disease-causing organisms to improve vaccines and to train research workers.
It works towards providing safe drinking water and adequate waste disposal.
It organises conference, seminars and training for health care personnel from different countries:-
It aims at fighting diseases and preventing them from spreading. Malaria eradication programme continues to be the world’s biggest health programme.
It defines standards for the strength and purity of medicines including biological products.
It makes special efforts in combating diarrhold diseases which are known as killers of infants and young children.
❇️ International Labour Organisations (ILO) : –
🔹 The International Labour Organisation (ILO) was founded in 1919, its constitution forming part of the Treaty of versaillies. The ILO became the first specialised agency of the UN in 1946.
🔹 The ILO is the only ‘Tripartite’ UN agency. It brings together representatives of governments, employers and workers to jointly shape policies and programmes.
🔹 The ILO is devoted to advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.
🔹 The ILO helps in the creation of decent jobs and the kinds of economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress.
❇️ main aims of International Labour Organisations (ILO) : –
- promote rights at work.
- encourage decent employment opportunities.
- enhance social protection.
- strengthen dialogue in handling work related issues.
❇️ Objectives of ILO : –
🔹 There are four principle strategic objectives of ILO which are as follows.
- To promote and realise standards and fundamental principles and rights at work.
- To create greater opportunities for women and men to secure decent employment.
- To enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all.
- To strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.
❇️ Functions of ILO : –
🔹 The functions of ILO are as follows:-
- Creation of coordinated policies and programmes, directed at solving social and Labour Issues.
- Adoption of International Labour Standards in the form of convention and recommendations and control over their implementation.
- Assistance to member-states in solving social and labour problems.
- Human rights protection (the right to work, freedom of association, collective negotiations, protection against forced labour, protection against discrimination, etc.).
- Research and publication of works on social and labour issues.
❇️ International Labour Standards : –
- The ILO sets International Labour Standards with conventions, which are ratified by member states. These are non-binding.
- Conventions are drawn up with impact from government. workers and employer’s group at the ILO and are adopted by the International Labour Conference.
- In ratifying an ILO convention, a member state accepts it as a legally binding instrument.
❇️ Principal Organs of United Nations : –
🔹 The United Nations (UN) has six main organs. Five of them are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
❇️ General Assembly : –
🔹 It is the main deliberative organ of the United Nations. It is composed of representatives from all member states, each of which has one vote. It also plays a significant role in the process of standard-setting and the codification of international law.
🔹 The Assembly meets from September to December each year (main part), and thereafter, from January to September (resumed part), as required.
🔹 The Assembly considers current issues of critical importance to the international community in the form of high-level thematic debates organised by the President of the General Assembly, in consultation with the membership.
❇️ Functions and Powers of the General Assembly : –
The Assembly is empowered to make recommendations to States on international issues within its competence.
Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among countries.
Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States.
Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General.
Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament.
❇️ Functions and Powers of Security Council : –
To maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
To investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.
To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement.
To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.
To determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken.
To call on members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression.
To recommend to the General Assembly for the appointment of the Secretary-General and together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.
❇️ Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) : –
🔹 ECOSOC was established in 1945, it is the place where the world’s economic, social and environmental challenges are discussed and debated, and policy recommendations issued. Munir Akram was elected seventy-sixth President of the Economic and Social Council on 23rd July, 2020. The Council is made up of 54 members.
❇️ Functions and Powers of ECOSOC : –
To serve as the central forum for discussions on international economic and social issues.
To promote higher standards of living, full employment and economic and social progress.
To find solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems, and international cultural and educational cooperation.
To encourage universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
To prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly.
To coordinate the work of the specialised agencies and programmes and their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
To make arrangements for consultations with non-governmental organisations.
❇️ Trusteeship Council : –
🔹 The Trusteeship Council was established to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories and to make sure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the territories for self-government or independence. It was suspended on 1st November, 1994 with the independence of Palau, the last UN trust territory.
❇️ Functions and Powers of Trusteeship Council : –
- It is authorised to examine and discuss reports from the Administering Authority on the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the peoples of Trust Territories.
- To accept and examine petitions in consultation with the administrating authority.
❇️ Secretariat : –
🔹 The United Nations Secretariat carries out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organisation’s other main organs.
🔹 The Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year renewable term.
❇️ Functions and Powers of Secretariat : –
- To gather and prepare background information on various issues so that government delegates can study the facts and make recommendations.
- To help carry out the decisions made by the different organs of the United Nations.
- To organise international conferences.
- To translate speeches and distribute documents into the UN’s official languages.
- To keep the public informed about the work of the United Nations.
❇️ International Court of Justice : –
🔹 It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. The Court is charged with settling legal disputes between States and giving advisory opinions to the United Nations.
🔹 These organs vote simultaneously but separately. In order to ensure a degree of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years. Judges are eligible for re-election.
❇️ Functions and Powers of International Court of Justice : –
🔹 The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorised United Nations organs and specialised agencies.
🔹 The Court decides disputes between countries, based on the voluntary participation of the States concerned. If a State agrees to participate in a proceeding, it is obligated to comply with the Court’s decision.