9 Class Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Population Notes
|Category||Class 9 Geography Notes|
Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Population Notes In which we will learning about census, population density, population growth, age structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, occupational structure, health etc.
Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Population Notes
📚 Chapter = 6 📚
💠 Population 💠
❇️ Census :-
🔹 A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically.
❇️ Census In India :-
🔹 In India the first census was held in the year 1872. But the first complete census however was taken in the year 1881. Since then censuses have been held regularly every tenth year.
❇️ Total Population of India :-
🔹 India’s population as on March, 2011 stood at 121 crore (presently more than 130 crore). India’s population accounts for 17.5 per cent of the world population.
🔹 The population of India at 1210.2 million (121 crore) is almost equal to the combined population of USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan.
❇️ Most populous state in India :-
🔹 According to the 2011 census, Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country. Where the total population is 199281477. Uttar Pradesh is home to 16 percent of the total population of the country.
❇️ Least populous state in India :-
🔹 Sikkim is the least populous state in the country according to the 2011 census. Where total population is 607688.
❇️ States with half the population of India :-
🔹 Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states. These states are :-Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
❇️ Population density :-
🔹 Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area.
❇️ Population density in India :-
🔹 The population density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per sq km. Densities vary from 1,102 persons per sq km in Bihar to only 17 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh.
❇️ State with highest population density :-
🔹 Bihar (1102 persons per square km.)
❇️ State with lowest population density :-
🔹 Arunachal Pradesh (17 only)
❇️ Population Growth :-
🔹 Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time, say during the last 10 years.
🔹 Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of
- absolute numbers
- in terms of percentage change per year.
❇️ absolute increase :-
🔹 The absolute numbers added each year or decade is the magnitude of increase. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population (e.g. that of 2001) from the later population (e.g. that of 2011). It is referred to as the absolute increase.
❇️ annual growth rate :-
🔹 It is studied in per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of 2 per cent per annum means that in a given year, there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. This is referred to as the annual growth rate.
❇️ Processes of population change :-
🔹 There are three main processes of change of population :-
🔶 Birth rates :- number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
🔶 Death rates :- number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
🔶 Migration :- movement of people across regions and territories. It is of two types :
- Migration can be internal (within the country).
- Migration can be international (between the countries).
🔹 Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
🔹 Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.
❇️ Age composition :-
🔹 Age composition is one of the most basic characteristics of a population. The population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories :-
🔶 Children (below 15 years) :- They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.
🔶 Working Age (15-59) :- They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
🔶 Aged (59 years) :- They can be economically productive though they may have retired and they may be working voluntarily.
❇️ Sex Ratio :-
🔹 Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. It is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society.
❇️ Sex ratio in india :-
🔹 The sex ratio in India is 940.
🔶 The state having highest sex ratio :- Kerala (1084)
🔶 The state having lowest sex ratio :- Haryana (977)
❇️ Literacy rates :-
🔹 A person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate.
❇️ Literacy rates in India :-
🔹 The literacy rate in the country as per the Census of 2011 is 73 per cent; 80.9 per cent for males and 64.6 per cent for females.
🔶 The state with the highest literacy rate in India is :- Kerala (93.9%)
🔶 The state with the lowest literacy rate in India is :- Bihar (63.82%).
❇️ Occupational Structure :-
🔹 The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure . Occupations are generally classified as primary , secondary , and tertiary .
🔹 These are :-
🔶 Primary activities include agriculture , animal husbandry , forestry , fishing , mining and quarrying etc.
🔶 Secondary activities include manufacturing industry , building and construction work etc.
🔶 Tertiary activities include transport , communications , commerce , administration and other services.
❇️ Health :-
🔹 Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvements in the health conditions of the Indian population.
🔹 Death rates have declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 7.2 per 1000 in 2011 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 67.9 years in 2012.
❇️ Adolescent Population :-
🔹 The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India. generally, grouped in the age group of 10 to 19 years.
❇️ National Population Policy :-
🔹 Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952 to improve individual health and welfare .
🔹 The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age , reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births , achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases , promoting delayed marriage for girls , and making family welfare a people centered programme.
❇️ NPP 2000 and Adolescents :-
🔹 NPP 2000 also put emphasis on other important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It aims towards encouraging:
- Delayed marriage and child-bearing
- Education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex
- Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable
- Providing food supplements
- Nutritional services
- Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage
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