Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy Notes

10 Class Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy Notes

TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectPolitical Science (Civics)
Chapter Chapter 8
Chapter NameChallenges to Democracy
CategoryClass 10 Political Science (Civics) Notes
MediumEnglish

Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy Notes. here we will be learn about Challenges, Challenges of Democracy, Victory over the challenges of democracy, Characteristics of a good democracy, Challenges before Indian democracy etc.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 8 Challenges to Democracy Notes

📚 Chapter = 8 📚
💠 Challenges to Democracy💠

❇️ Meaning of challenge :-

🔹 A problem that is important, which can be overcome and in which there are hidden opportunities to move forward, is called a challenge.  

🔹 When we win a challenge, we are able to move forward.

❇️ The main challenges of democracy are :-

  • Foundation challenge.
  • Challenge of expansion.
  • Challenge of deepening of democracy.

🔶 Foundational challenge :- 

🔹 This involves bringing down the existing non-democratie regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state.

🔶 Challenge of expansion :-

🔹 It involves applying the basic principles of democracy across all the regions, social groups and institutions. 

🔹 Ensuring greater power to local government, extension of federal principals to all the units of the federations and inclusion of women and minority groups. 

🔹 Less and less decisions should be remain outside the democratic arena. Most country including India faces this challenge. 

🔹 Example :- In Saudi Arabia women are not allowed to take part in Public activities. In Myanmar, there is military rule.

🔶 Challenge of deepening of democracy :-

 🔹 The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one way or the other. This challenge ensures :-  

  • Strengthening of democratic institutions and principles.
  • To check the influence of the wealthy and powerful people in democratic decisions.
  • Empowering the general section of people through democratic institutions.

❇️ Challenges faced by the countries, making transitions to democracy under foundational challenge :-

  • Poverty 
  • Illiteracy 
  • Regionalism 
  • Unemployment 
  • Communalism 
  • Political Violence and insurgency 
  • Casteism 
  • Gender Discrimination 

❇️ Different types of challenges to a democracy :-

  • Constitutional design 
  • Federalism and its functioning 
  • working of institutions 
  • Elections 
  • Democratic rights 
  • Accommodation of diversity 
  • Political groups and organizations
  • Challenges of expansion of democracy 
  • Challenges of deepening of democracy 
  • Foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy.

❇️ Constitutional Design :-

🔹 The principal that insists on organisation and working of the state according to a constitution.

❇️ Political reform :-

🔹 Generally all the suggestions or proposals about overcoming various challenges to democracy are called ‘democracy reform’ or ‘political reform’.

❇️ Political Reforms in India :-

  • Law has an important role
  • Laws that give political actors incentives to do good things have more chances of working .
  • The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms .
  • Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practice .

❇️ Challenges to democracy are linked to the possibility of political reform in the following ways :-

  • Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices.  
  • Democratic reforms are to be carried out by political parties activists, movements and politically conscious citizens. 
  • Ordinary citizens too participate in political affairs. 
  • Democratic movements, citizens organizations and media can play an important role in establishing democracy and thus reforming politics. 
  • Laws to empower citizens like RTI should be made accessible so that parties, their functioning and above all democracy can be reformed from time to time. 

❇️ Guidelines to be kept in mind while devising ways and means for Political Reforms in India :-

🔹 Carefully devised changes in Law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. At the same time, legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. They are to be carried out by political activists, parties movements and politically aware people. 

🔹 Legal changes can sometimes be counter productive. Generally laws that seek to ban something are not very successful. Rather laws that give political actors incentives to do good things have more chances of working for example, RTI, empowers people to act as watch dogs of democracy. 

🔹 The focus of political reforms should be on ways to strengthen democratic practice. 

🔹 Any proposal or political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution but also about who will implement it and how measures that rely or democratic movements, citizens organisations and the media are likely to succeed.

❇️ influences of Socio – economic inequality on Indian democracy :-

  • Disinterest among common people mean less participation. 
  • Control over government by rich people and industrial houses. 
  • Widening gap between rich and poor. 
  • Promotes class interest. 
  • Unrest between the poor and the rich leads to tension.

❇️ Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy.’ Justify :-

🔹 Legal-constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. This statement can be explained giving the fol lowing arguments :-

  • Democratic reforms need to be carried out mainly by political activities, political parties, movement groups and politically conscious citizens. 
  • Any legal change must produce positive effects of politics. But sometimes the result may be counterproductive. For example many states have banned people from contesting election who have more than two children. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor and women, though it was not an intention.
  • Laws that seek to ban something need not be successful always. 
  • Laws that give initiative to the politician actors have more possibilities of surviving. 
  • Laws that empower people and carry out democratic reforms are best. For example RTI Act. 
  • At a larger scale, it will initiate a corruption fee society.
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