Water resources class 10 notes, class 10 geography chapter 3 notes

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10 Class Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources Notes

ClassClass 10
Chapter Chapter 3
Chapter NameWater Resources
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes

Water resources class 10 notes, class 10 geography chapter 3 notes. here we will be learn about Water Some facts and Figures, Dams , Multi-purpose river projects , Objectives of multi-purpose river projects , Disadvantages of Multi-purpose river projects , Movements against Multi-purpose river projects , Rainwater Harvesting etc.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources Notes

📚 Chapter = 3 📚
💠 Water Resources💠

❇️ Water :-

🔹 Water is a renewable resource. three-fourth of the earths surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater that can be put to use. This freshwater is mainly obtained from surface.

❇️ Some facts and Figures :-

96.5 percent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 percent as freshwater. 

India receives nearly 4 percent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum. 

By 2025. it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity.

❇️ Some sources of fresh water :-

  • Precipitation :- from rainfall. 
  • Surface water :- in rivers, lakes, etc. 
  • Ground water :- water stored in underground acquifers which gets recharged by rainfall.

❇️ Underground Water :-

🔹 The water which is collected in the layers and rock pores below the soil.

❇️ Conservation :-

🔹 The protection of plants and animals, natural areas and interesting and important buildings especially from the damaging effects of human activity.

❇️ Water scarcity :-

🔹 Water scarcity means shortage of water. 

❇️ Causes of Water Scarcity :-

Large growing population.

water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas.

greater demand for water with growing urbanisation and industrialisation.

unequal access to water among different social groups.

Excessive use of water by industries.

Over exploitation of water in the urban areas

❇️ Main causes of water pollution :-

Domestic wastes, 

Industrial wastes are disposed off in the water without proper treatment. 

Chemical effluents from industries and from agricultural sector. 

Pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture  

Many human activities, e.g., religious rituals and immersing of idols, etc. in the water also pollute water.

❇️ Reason of need for conservation of water resources :-

Water resources are limited and our requirements are increasing day by day. 

Most of our resources are polluted and unsuitable for drinking and other purposes.

To safeguard ourselves from health hazards. 

To ensure food security and for continuation of our livelihoods. 

To prevent degradation natural ecosystem.of our water bodies.

❇️ Multinational companies(MNCS) :-

🔹 Those companies whose industrial organisations work more than in a single nation and they invest capital in many countries to earn maximum profits.

❇️ How the industrialisation and urbanisation are responsible for the water scarcity :-

Rapid industrialisation after the independence. 

Due to ever-increasing number of industries excess use of fresh water. 

Multiplying urban centres with large and dense population and urban lifestyles have added to water and energy requirements. 

Overexploitation of water resources in cities as well as in villages.

❇️ Reasons for increasing water scarcity in India :-

India is a country of Monsoon climate. Some time due to the failure of Monsoon the scarcity of water Increases. 

The rapid growth in the demand of irrigation water. 

Due to the industrial activities downfall of underground water. 

Growing pressure on the water resources due to the pace of urbanisation. 

To meet the needs of the growing population.

❇️ Hydroelectricity(hydel power):-

🔹 Electricity generation from the flowing water/rivers by throwing it from height.

❇️ measures adopted for conservation of water resources :-

Do not overdraw the ground water, recharge the ground water. 

Avoid wastage of water at all levels. 

Do not pollute the water. 

tapping the rainwater in reservoirs, watershed development programmes, etc. 

Drip irrigation and sprinklers etc., especially in dry areas.

❇️ How was water conserved in ancient India :-

In the first century B.C., Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system. 

During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built. 

Sophisticated irrigation works have been found in Kalinga in Odisha, Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh, Bennur in Karnataka and Kolhapur in Maharashtra. 

Bhopal lake, built in the 11th century, was one of the largest artificial lakes of its time. 

In the 14th century, ltutmish constructed a tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi for supplying water in Siri Fort area.


🔹 Multi-purpose river projects large dams that serve several purposes in addition to impounding the water of a river and used later to irrigate agricultural fields.


🔹 They help to control flood, check soil erosion, provide water for irrigation and drinking purpose, generate electricity for industries, villages, cities, provide inland navigation, help in preservation of wildlife and development or fisheries.


  • Damodar Valley Corporation :- Built on river Damodar, beneficiary states are Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • Bhakra-Nangal :- Built on Satluj, beneficiary states are Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan & Himachal Pradesh.
  • Hirakud :- Built on river Mahanadi-beneficiary state is Odisha.
  • Kosi :- Built on river Kosi-beneficiary state Bihar and our neighbouring country-Nepal.
  • Chambal Valley :- Built over river Chambal beneficiary states are Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan.


  • Irrigation
  • Hydro- electricity for our industries and homes.
  • Water supply for domestic and industrial use, regulating flow of water.
  • Flood control
  • Recreational facilities
  • Inland navigation
  • Pisciculture fish breeding
  • Soil conservation through afforestation.


Their failure to fulfil their basic objectives like flood control and the disadvantages resulting out of building of such projects.

Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of the rivers, cause excessive sedimentation and adversely affect aquatic life.

The reservoirs that are created in the floodplains overflow and submerge the existing vegetation and soil consequently leading to their decomposition.

Multi purpose projects lead to large scale displacement of local communities and to loss of their livelihood.

Excessive use of water, and over-irrigation on account of the projects lead to land degradation and cause water borne disease, pests and pollution.

❇️ Dams :-

🔹 A barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity or as a water supply.

❇️ Advantages of dams :-

  • Irrigation 
  • Electricity generation 
  • Water supply for domestic and industrial uses 
  • Flood control 
  • Recreatic and Tourism
  • Fish breeding 

❇️ Why Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed dams as the ‘temples of modern India’? 

🔹 These projects integrate the development of agriculture with industries therefore Nehru ji called them the temples of modern India. 

❇️ Why dams are now referred as multi-purpose projects ?

The uses of the impounded water are in integration with one an- other. 

Dams are constructed to flood control, irrigation, generation and distribution of electricity. 

Dams are constructed to conserve water, vegetation and soil. 

It also helps to promote tourism.

❇️ Multi-purpose projects In India :-

launched after Independence with their integrated water resources management approach. 

Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modern India’. 

It would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialisation and growth of the urban economy. 

❇️ Narmada Bachao Andolan :-

🔹 A movement against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river in Gujarat. 

Organised by Non Governmental Organisation(NGO) 

Mobilised tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists.

It originally focused on the environmental issues related to trees that would be submerged under the dam water. 

Later re-focused the aim to get full rehabilitation of displaced people.

❇️ Rainwater Harvesting :-

🔹 The harvesting of rainwater simply involves the collection of water from surfaces on which rain falls, and subsequently storing this water for later use. Normally water is collected from the roofs of buildings and stored in rainwater tanks.

❇️ Main objectives of the rainwater harvesting are :-

  • To meet increasing demand of water.
  • To reduce runoff. 
  • To avoid the flooding of roads. 
  • To augment the groundwater storage and raise the water table. 
  • To reduce groundwater pollution. 
  • To improve the quality of groundwater. 
  • To supplement domestic water requirement during summer and long dry spells.

❇️ Methods of Rainwater Harvesting :-

People built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or “kuls’ of the Western Himalayas

Rooftop rain water harvesting

Underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water in Bikaner, Phalodi and Banner.

Bamboo drip irrigation system in Meghalaya. 

❇️ Roof top Rainwater Harvesting :-

🔹 Rainwater harvesting is the technique through which rain water is captured from the roof catchments and stored in reservoirs.

❇️ Bamboo Drip Irrigation System :-

🔹 Tapping stream and spring water for irrigation by using bamboo pipes.

❇️ Palar Pani :-

🔹 The rainwater which is stored in underground tanks is potable water. It is called Palar Pani. 

❇️ significance of Palar Pani in the arid regions of Rajasthan :-

🔹 In the arid regions of Rajasthan, it is important in the following ways :-

  • It is the main source of drinking water, when all other sources have dried up. 
  • It is considered the purest form of drinking water. 
  • In summer, these tanks would keep the underground rooms cool, adjoining them, clean.

❇️ negative effect of over irrigation :-

  • This has great ecological consequences like Stalinization of the soil. 
  • Decrease the soil fertility. 
  • leads to water scarcity. 
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