Agriculture class 10 notes, Class 10 geography chapter 4 notes

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10 Class Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Notes

ClassClass 10
Chapter Chapter 4
Chapter NameAgriculture
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes

Agriculture class 10 notes, Class 10 geography chapter 4 notes. here we will be learn about Types of Farming Cropping Pattern , Major Crops , Food Crops other than Grains , Non-Food Crops Technological and Institutional Reforms , Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output , Food Security , Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture etc.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Notes

📚 Chapter = 4 📚
💠 Agriculture💠

❇️ Agriculture :-

🔹 Agriculture is a primary activity in which almost two-third of India’s population is engaged.

❇️ Farming Process :-

  • Ploughing 
  • Sowing
  • Watering (Irrigation)
  • Weeding
  • Manuring
  • Spraying of insecticides
  • Har vesting
  • Threshing

❇️ Types of Farming :-

🔹 There are various types of farming in India such as primitive subsistence farming, intensive subsistence farming, commercial farming, plantations etc.

🔶 Primitive Subsistence Farming :-

🔹 Primitive Subsistence Farming is practised with small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, Dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour. 

🔹 This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

🔶 Slash and burn Farming :-

🔹 Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.

🔶 Intensive Subsistence Farming :-

🔹 It is practised in areas of high population pressure on land. It is labour intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.

🔶 Commercial Farming :-

🔹 The agricultural practice on large scale by using modern technology to earn good income from agriculture is called Commercial Farming. 

🔹 The main characteristics of the type of farming are used of higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.

🔶 Plantation :-

🔹 A type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area using capital intensive inputs with the help of migrant labourers.

❇️ Cropping Pattern :-


  • Kharif
  • Rabi
  • Zaid

🔶 Kharif :-

🔹 It starts with the onset of the monsoon and continues till the beginning of winter (June-July to September-October). The Kharif crops include, rice, maize, millet, cotton, jute, groundnut, moong, urad, etc.

🔶 Rabi :-

🔹 It starts with the beginning of winter and continues till the beginning of summer (Oct-Dec to April-June). The rabi crops include wheat, barley, gram and oilseeds.

🔶 Zaid :-

🔹 This is a short crop season in between the rabi and kharif season Crops like watermelons, cucumber, some vegetables and fodder crops are the major crops.

❇️ Different between Rabi and Kharif Crops :-

Rabi Kharif 
Cultivation begins with the withdrawal of monsoons in October. Cultivation begins with the on set of monsoons in May. 
Sowing of seeds is done in October-November. Sowing of seeds is done in June or early July. 
Crops are harvested in April-May. Crops are harvested in September-October. 
Crops depend on the sub-soil moisture. Crops depend on the mon soons. 
Types: Wheat, gram and oil- seeds like mustard and rapeseedsTypes: Rice, millets, maize, groundnuts, jute, cotton and various pulses.

❇️ Major Crops :-

  • Food crops :-Wheat, Rice, Maize, Pulses, Oilseeds. 
  • Cash crpos :- Tea, Rubber, Coffee, jute, cotton.
  • Horticulture crops :- Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables.

❇️ Major Crops in India :-

🔹 Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute, etc.

💠 Major Crops 💠

❇️ Rice :-

🔹 Rice is the major staple food crop of a majority of the people in India.

🔶 Climate :- Paddy is a tropical crop and grows well in the wet monSoon. 

🔶 Temperature :- Above 25°C, coupled with heavy humidity.

🔶 Rainfall :- above 100 cm. It requires heavy rainfall in summer and irrigation in areas of less rainfall. 

🔶 Areas of Cultivation :- plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic region. Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan. With the help of irrigation.

❇️ Wheat :-

🔹 It is the main food crop in north and north-western part of the country. 

🔶 Soil Type :- Alluvial soil and black soil 

🔶 Temperature :- This rabi crop requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening.

🔶 Rainfall :- It requires 50 to 70 cm of annual rainfall.

🔶 Areas of Cultivation :- the Ganga-Sutlej plain in the north-west and black soil region of Deccan. 

🔶 Wheat producing states are :- Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan.


🔹 Jowar, Bajra and Rabi are the important millets grown in India. It is a main-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. 

🔶 Jowar :-

🔹 Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production.

🔹 Major Jowar producing States are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

🔶 Bajra :-

🔹 Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.

🔹 Major Bajra producing States are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.

🔶 Ragi :-

🔹 Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. 

🔹 Major ragi producing states are: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.

❇️ MAIZE :-

🔹  It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder. 

🔶 Temperature :- It is a kharif crop which requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C 

🔶 Soil :- grows well in old alluvial soil. 

🔶 Major maize producing states are :- Karnataka, UP, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

❇️ PULSES :-

🔹 India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world. 

🔹 These are the major source of protein in vegetation diet. 

🔹 Major pulses that are grown in India are tur, urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.

🔹 Major pulses producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, UP, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

💠 Food Crops other than Grains 💠

❇️ Sugarcane :-

🔹 India is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world after Brazil. 

🔶 Climate :- It grows well in hot and humid climate.

🔶 Soil Type :- it can be grown well on a variety of soils. 

🔶 Temperature :- Temperature requirement is 21°C to 27°C. 

🔶 Rainfall :- Annual rainfall between 75cm and 100 cm. 

🔶 The major sugarcane producing states are :- uttar pradesh, maharashtra, karnataka, tamil nadu.

❇️ Oil Seeds :-

🔹 In 2017 India was the second largest producer of groundnut in the world after China. In rapeseed production India was third largest producer in the world after Canada and China in 2017.

🔹 oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. 

❇️ Tea :-

🔹 Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture.

🔹 In 2020 China-1st and India-2nd in tea production in the world.

🔶 Climate :- grow well in tropical and subtropical ( hot and humid) climate. 

🔶 Soil Type :- deep fertile well drained soil which is rich in humus and organic matter.

🔶 Rainfall :- 150 to 300 cm annual. High humidity and frequent show- ers evenly distributed throughout the year.

🔶 Major tea producing states are :- Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Apart from these, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea-producing states in the country.

❇️ Coffee :-

🔹 Indian coffee is known in the world for its good quality.

🔹 Initially its cultivation was introduced on the Baba Budan Hills 

🔹 Its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

❇️ Horticulture Crops :-

🔹 In 2017, India was the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China.

🔹  Horticulture Crops include the cultivation of both fruits and vegetables. 

🔹 Important vegetable produces in India are pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato. 

🔹 Important fruits grow in India are mango, orange, banana, pineapple, grape, lichi, guava, apple pear, apricot, walnut, etc. crops.

❇️ Non-food Crops :-

🔹 An industrial crop, also called a non-food crop, is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption.

💠 Non-food Crops 💠

❇️ Rubber :-

🔹 It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

🔶 Climate :- It requires moist and humid climate.

🔶 Temperature :- temperature above 25°C. 

🔶 Rainfall :- rainfall of more than 200 cm.

🔶 Areas of Cultivation :- It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Garo hills in Meghalaya.

❇️ Fibre Crops :-

🔹 Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India. 

🔹 The first three are derived from the crops grown in the soil, the latter is obtained from Cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves specially mulberry. 

🔹 Rearing of silk worms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.

❇️ Cotton :-

🔹India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant. Cotton is one of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry. In 2017, India was second largest producer of cotton after China. 

🔶 Soil :- Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.

🔶 Temperature and Climate :- It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.  

🔶 Areas of Cultivation :- Cotton producing states are MP, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, UP & Haryana.

🔹 It is a kharif crop and requires 6-8 months to mature. 

❇️ Jute :-

🔹 It is also known as Golden fibre. Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains, where soils are renewed every year. 

🔹 It requires high temperature. Major jute producing states are Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Odisha, Meghalaya.

❇️ Technological and Institutional Reforms :-

🔹 The Government of India in 1960s to 1970s introduced some agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture like Green Revolution and White Revolution. 

🔹 Major institutional reforms like land reforms and collectivisation were introduced in India from the first Five Year Plan. 

🔹 Government of India has initiated land development programmes and schemes like Kisan Credit Card (KCC), weather bulletins and programmes on radio and television, etc for the benefits of the farmers. 

🔹Government also announced Minimum Support Price (MSP), remunerative and procurement prices for various agricultural products. 

❇️ White revolution :-

🔹 To improve the breeds of animals for the growth in milk production with the use of modern is also called Operation Flood. 

❇️ Green Revolution :-

🔹 Based on the Uses of HYV seeds.Modern technology,fertilisers,pesticides, insecticides to increase production especially Wheat production.

❇️ Negative impacts of green revolution on Indian Agriculture :-

  • Land degradation due to overuse of chemicals. 
  • Lowering the ground water level due to over irrigation.
  • Vanishing Bio-diversity.
  • Difference between rich and poor farmers is increasing.

❇️ MSP :-

🔹 Minimum Support Price is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to insure agricultural producers against any sharp fall in farm prices. 

🔹 MSP is price fixed by Government of India to protect the producer – farmers – against excessive fall in price during bumper production years.

❇️ Importance of agriculture in Indian economy :-

  • India is an agricultural country.
  • Nearly two-thirds of its population depends directly on agriculture for its livelihood. 
  • Agriculture is the main stay of India’s economy.  
  • It accounts for 26% of the gross domestic product. 
  • It ensures food security for the country and produces several raw materials for industries.

❇️ Contribution of Agriculture to the National Economy, Employment and Output :-

🔹 As per a survey done in 2010-11 around 52% of the Indian population is dependent on agriculture for sustenance. 

🔹 When share of agriculture declines in GDP, it leads to a decline in other spheres of the economy. 

🔹 To improve Indian agriculture, the Government of India made efforts to modernise agriculture.

🔹 For this the government established Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast. 

❇️ Institutional reforms introduced by the Indian Government in favour of farmers :-

Provision of crop insurance facility. (fasal bima).

Loan facilities to the farmers and development of grameen and cooperative banks. 

Announces minimum support price (MSP), remunerative and procurement prices for important crops. 

Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers.

Broadcasting of agricultural programmes on T.V. and radio related with new technology, tools, fertilisers etc.

❇️ GDP :-

🔹 Gross Domestic product is the total monetary value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year or over a specific time period.

❇️ Food Corporation of India :-

🔹 FCI is a statutory body established via Food Corporation Act 1964 to meet the following objectives of the Food Policy: Effective price support operations for safeguarding the interests of the farmers. Distribution of food grains throughout the country for public distribution system.

❇️ Public Distribution System :-

🔹 Public Distribution System is a government-sponsored chain of shops entrusted with the work of distributing basic food and non-food commodities to the needy sections of the society at very cheap prices.

❇️ Globalisation :-

🔹 The process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. 

❇️ Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture :-

🔹 Globalisation has also adversely impacted Indian agriculture as the farmers in India are exposed to high competition from farmers of the developed countries.

🔹 Our farmers are not able to compete with them on prices of major commodities like rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices. 

🔹 If India changes its cropping pattern i.e. if India imports cereals while exporting high value commodities, it will be following successful economics like Italy, Israel and Chile. 

🔹 Gene revolution and organic farming are new dimensions in Indian agriculture that is based on innovative technology.

❇️ Ways of agricultural reforms in India :-

  • Direct help to farmers, subsidy in account.
  • Easy and cheap loan to farmers.
  • Easy accessibility of water and electricity. 
  • Crop insurance to protect from flood, drought, cyclone and fire.
  • Minimum support price (MSP), Gramin Bank, Kissan Credit Card.
  • Special weather bulletins.
  • Laws of land reforms implemented.
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