Minerals and energy resources class 10 notes, Class 10 geography chapter 5 notes

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10 Class Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Notes

ClassClass 10
Chapter Chapter 5
Chapter NameMinerals and Energy Resources
CategoryClass 10 Geography Notes

Minerals and energy resources class 10 notes, Class 10 geography chapter 5 notes. here we will be learn about Minerals , Mode of Occurrence of Minerals , Classification of Minerals , Metallic minerals , Non-Metallic minerals , Conservation of Minerals Energy Resources , Conservation sources of Energy , Non-Conventional Sources of Energy , Conservation of Resorces etc.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Notes

📚 Chapter = 5 📚
💠 Minerals and Energy Resources💠

❇️ Mineral :-

🔹 Minerals An indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything we use are made from minerals.

🔹 A homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure is called mineral. 

❇️ Importance of minerals for us :- 

🔹 Almost everything we use in our daily life, from tiny pin to a big ship all are made from minerals. Towering buildings, machinery, utensils, means of transport, railway line and bridges too are made from minerals. Even the food that we eat contains the minerals.

❇️ Ore :-

🔹 Minerals are usually found in ores. An ore is a naturally occurring material having one or more minerals in sufficient concentration mixed with other elements. 

❇️ Mode of Occurrence of Minerals :-

🔹 Minerals generally occur in these forms :-

🔶 Through Igneous and Metamorphic rocks :- 

🔹 In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crvices, faults and joints. The smaller occurences are called veins and the larger are called lodes.

🔹 In most cases they are formed when minerals in liquid / molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.

🔶 Through the layers of Sedimentary rocks :- 

🔹 In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. 

🔶 Decomposition of surface rocks :- 

🔹 When decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents takes place, it leaves a residual mass of weathered material containing mineral ores. Bauxite is formed by the decomposition of surface rocks.

🔶 Alluvial deposits or Placer deposite :-

🔹 Some minerals are found in sands of valley floors and at the base of hills. These are known as placer deposits’. They are not corroded by water, Example :- gold, silver, platinum and tin.

🔶 Ocean Waters :- 

🔹 These contain many minerals. Common salt, magnesium and bromine are derived from ocean waters, whereas manganese nodules occur in ocean beds.

❇️ Mining :-

🔹 The extraction of useful and commerically viable minerals by digging down the earth is called mining.

❇️ Basis of classification of minerals :-

🔹 This classification is based on their colour, shine, hardness, density and crystallisation.

❇️ Classification of Minerals :-

🔹 Minerals are mainly classified as 

  • metallic, 
  • non-metallic and 
  • energy minerals.

❇️ Metallic Minerals :-

🔹 Minerals containing metals are called metallic minerals, like gold, silver, tungsten, etc. 

🔹 They are of three types :-

🔶 Ferrous :- (In which part of iron is present) Examples :- Iron, mangnese, Nickel, Cobalt etc.

🔶 Non- Ferrous :- (In which part of iron is not present) Examples :- Copper, Lead, Tin, Aluminium etc. 

🔶 Precious Minerals :- Examples :- Gold, Silver, Platinum etc.

❇️ Ferrous Minerals :-

🔹 These account for about three-fourths of the total value of production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for development of metallurgical industries. Iron-ore and Manganese are the best examples of ferrous minerals.

❇️ Iron Ore :-

🔹 It is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. India has abundant resources of good quality iron ore. 

🔶 Magnetite :-

🔹 The finest iron ore is magnetite. It has a very high iron content upto 70%. Magnetite has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry. 

🔶 Haematite :-

🔹 Haematite ore has an iron content upto 50-60%. It is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used.

❇️ Major iron ore belts in India :-

🔹 There are four major iron ore belts in India:-

  • Orissa – Jharkhand belt 
  • Maharashtra – Goa belt 
  • Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt 
  • Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt

❇️ Manganese :-

It is a metallic element used in manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloys. 

Nearly 10 kg of manganese is used to manufacture one tonne of steel. 

It is also used in manufacturing insecticide, bleaching powder and paints. 

Orissa has the largest share in manganese production in India.

❇️ Non-Ferrous Minerals :-

Minerals that do not contain iron content are called non-ferrous minerals. 

The reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals in India is not sufficient. 

These minerals include copper, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold etc which are vital for various industries like metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.

❇️ Copper :-

It is an important mineral due to its excellent electrical conductivity. 

It is used in manufacturing of electrical cables and in electronics and chemical industries. 

The leading producers of copper in India are :- 

Khetri mines in Rajasthan, 

Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh  

Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

❇️ Bauxite :- 

Bauxite ore is used for obtaining aluminium. It is formed by decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates. 

Bauxite is a clay-like substance from which alumina is extracted and later alumina developed into aluminium. 

Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main regions of bauxite deposits in Madhya Pradesh. 

Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state in India with 49% of the country’s total production in 2016-17. 

Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most-important centres of bauxite deposits in Odisha.

❇️ Aluminium :-

🔹 Aluminium is known for its strength and lightness. It is widely used in manufacturing of utensils, electrical goods, etc. 

❇️ Non-Metallic Minerals :-

🔹 The basic characteristic of non-metallic minerals is that they do not yield new products on melting. Mica is an important non-metallic mineral. 

❇️ Mica :-

🔹 It is used in electrical and electronics industries due to its di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage. 

Mica occurs in the form of plates or leaves, which can be split into thin sheets. Mica can be clear, black, green, red, yellow or brown. 

Its deposits are mainly found in the Northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. 

Other mica producing regions are Ajmer (Rajasthan) and Nellore (Andhra Pradesh).

❇️ Limestone :-

Limestone is a rock mineral found in sedimentary rocks. It is composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. 

Limestone is used for smelting iron ore in blast furnaces of steel plants and is the basic raw material for manufacturing of cement. 

Rajasthan has the largest share in limestone production in India i.e. 21%, in 2016-17.

❇️ Hazards of Mining :-

🔶 Why does the mining industry is called a killer industry?

🔹 Mining is a hazardous industry. It is known as a killer industry due to the following reasons :-

This industry effects the health of the miners and the environment. 

They have to breath in dust and noxious fumes. 

Miners inhales this regularly which make vulnerable to pulmonary diseases. 

The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coalmine are a constant threat to miners. 

The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining.

Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil and increase in stream and river pollution.

❇️ Conservation of Minerals :-

🔶 Need to conserve the minerals :-

Minerals are the base of our agriculture and Industries. 

Are finite and non-renewable. 

The stock is very limited. 

The total deposits is an insignificant fraction i.e. one percent of the earth’s crust. 

Takes millions of years to be created and concentrated. 

We are rapidly consuming mineral resources. 

🔶 Methods of conservation of Resources :-

Low wastage during mining and excavation. 

As far as possible use wood or plastic (Certified). 

Reuse the junk waste and old things. 

Recycle metals, use scrap metals and search other substitute. 

Use in a planned and sustainable manner.

❇️ Energy Resources :-

🔹 Resources which are used as power to run industries are called energy resources. Fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and electricity can generate energy. 

🔹 Energy resourcescan be classified as :- 

  • conventional or non-conventional sources. 
  • Non-conventional sources of energy

❇️ Conventional Sources of Energy :-

🔹 Conventional Sources like firewood, cattle dung cake, coal and petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal) have been used for a long time.

❇️ Non-Conventional Sources of Energy :-

🔹 Non-conventional sources of energy have come into use recently. These include wind power, solar energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, atomic energy and biogas energy. They are freely available, usually inexhaustible and renewable.

💠 Conventional Sources of Energy 💠

❇️ Coal :-

🔹 It is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India. It fulfills a greater amount of energy needs of the country. It is because India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy needs. 

🔹 Coal is a bulky material (of large size for its weight), which loses weight on use as it is reduced to ash. Thus, heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields.

🔶 uses of Coal :-

🔹 Coal is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry and for domestic needs. 

🔶 formation of Coal :-

🔹 Coal is formed by the compression of plant materials over millions of years.

🔹 The degree of compression formed due to pressure of upper layers of the Earth and the depth at which compression takes place results in the formation of different types of coal. 

🔶 Types of Coal :-

🔹 Depending on the degrees of compression, the depth and time of burial during its formation, there are following varieties of coal

  • Peat :- It is formed by decaying of plants in swamps. It has a low carbon content and low heating capacity and high moisture content. 
  • Lignite :- It low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. It is used for electricity generation. The important lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu. 
  • Bituminous :- It is the most popular coal in commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy. It has special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. It is found in greater depths. 
  • Anthracite :- This is the highest quality hard coal.

❇️ Occurrence of Coal in India :-

🔹 In India, coal occurs in rock series of the following two main geological ages :-

🔶 Gondwana Coal :- 

This coal was formed over 200 million years ago. This type of coal is used in metallurgy. 

The major sources of Gondwana coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand). In this belt, Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro are important coal fields. 

Coal deposits are also present in the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys.

🔶 Tertiary Coal :- 

  • This coal was formed 55 million years ago. This type of coal is found in the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

❇️ Petroleum :-

🔹 It is also known as mineral oil and ‘liquid golď’. It is the second highest energy source (after refining into various products like furnace oil, diesel, petrol, kerosene, etc) used in India after coal. It is used as a fuel. 

🔹 Petroleum refineries provide raw materials for synthetic textile, fertiliser, chemical industries, lubricants and fuel due to which it is called ‘Nodal Industry’.

🔹 About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.

❇️ Natural Gas :-

🔹  It is a clean energy resource as it gives out very little carbon and pollutants on burning. It is found with or without petroleum. As  compared to coal and petroleum products, it burns with a very low emission of harmful gases and other pollutants. 

❇️ Uses of Natural Gas :-

🔹 It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrialist material in the petrochemical industry. Natural gas is mainly used by the fertiliser and power industies. Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuel is also increasing.

❇️ Reserves of Natural Gas In Indian :-

🔹 The offshore region of the Krishna-Godavari basin has the largest amount of natural gas currently available in India. 

🔹 It is also available along the West coast in Mumbai high, Gulf of Cambay and in Andaman and Nicobar islands.

❇️ Electricity :-

🔹 It has a wide range of application in today’s world. The per capita consumption of electricity in a place is considered as an index of development. 

🔹 There are two ways through which electricity is generated.These are :-

🔶 Thermal electricity :- Thermal electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels, (coal, petroleum, natural gas etc) that supplies energy to drive turbines. The thermal power stations use non-renewable resources i.e. fossil fuels for generating electricity. 

🔶 Hydro electricity :- Hydro electricity is generated by flowing water. This energy is pollution free and commonly used all over India by constructing multi-purpose projects, like Bhakra Nangal, Damodar valley, the Kopili Hydel Project, etc.

❇️ Different between Thermal electricity and Hydro electricity :-

Thermal Power (Thermal electricity)Hydel Power (Hydro electricity)
This electricity is generated by the use of coal, petroleum and natural gas. This is generated by fast flowing water power which force to run the turbines. 
This is full of pollution. This is pollution free. 
Not a permanent source of energy. Apermanent energy resource. 
Based on non-renewable resources like coal. Based on renewable resource i.e. water
More then 310 thermal power stations are in India like Talcher, Panki, Namrup, Uran, Neyveli etc.India has a number of multi-purpose water. projecs like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel Project etc.

💠 Non-Conventional Sources of Energy 💠

❇️ Nuclear or Atomic Energy :-

🔹 It is generated by altering the structure of atoms that releases heat and energy which is used to generate electric power. 

🔹 Uranium and thorium are found in Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan and Jharkhand and monazite sands of Kerala which are used for generating nuclear or atomic energy.

❇️ Solar Energy :-

🔹 India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. It is used for a variety of purposes like electric power generation (using photovoltaic panels) and for heating purposes.

🔹 It is fast emerging as a fuel source in rural and remote places, thereby reducing their dependence on fire wood and dung cakes.

❇️ Wind Power :-

🔹 India has great potential of wind power. The largest wind form cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagar coil to Madurai. 

🔹 Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. 

🔹 Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) are very famous for effective use of wind energy in India.

❇️ Biogas :-

🔹 It is generated by the decomposition of organic matter like shrubs, farm waste, animal and human wastes in biogas plants. 

  • It has higher thermal efficiency than Kerosene, dung cake and charcoal. 
  • It is cheap, environment friendly and prevents loss of trees used for firewood. 
  • It is used as a fuel for cooking and lighting in rural areas. 
  • It also provides improved quality of manure. 

🔹 Biogas plants are set up by municipal, cooperatives and also by individuals. Biogas plants are also known as ‘Gobar gas plants’ in rural India.

❇️ Tidal Energy :-

🔹 It is the energy generated by movement of oceanic tides, which can be harnessed to generate electricity. 

🔶 The process of generation of tidal energy :-

🔹 To produce electricity, flood gate dams are built across inlets from where water enters during high tide. The gates are closed, once enough water flows in after the tide falls outside the flood gate.

🔹 The water retained inside the gate is made to flow out through a pipe that carries it through a power generating turbine. 

🔶 Ideal conditions places for generating tidal energy in India :-

🔹 In India, the Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat on the Western coast and Gangetic delta in Sunderban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy. 

❇️ Geo-thermal Energy :-

🔹 It refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. 

🔹 Geothermal energy exists because the Earth grows hotter with increase in depth. At some places, this geothermal gradient is so high that high temperatures are found at a shallow depth. 

🔹 Groundwater present in these areas absorb heat from the rocks and becomes hot and rises as steam. This steam is used to drive turbines for the generation of electricity. 

🔹 Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and Puga valley in Ladakh are two experimental projects to produce geothermal energy.

❇️ Conservation of Energy Resources :-

🔹 Since, energy is a basic requirement for economic development, we need to conserve it. To have sustainable development, we need to promote energy conservation by avoiding wastage and to increase the use of renewable energy sources. 

🔹 So, we should conserve energy resources by 

  • using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles. 
  • switching off electrical appliances when not in use. 
  • using power-saving devices. 
  • using non-conventional sources of energy.
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