Electoral politics class 9 notes, class 9 civics chapter 3 notes

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9 Class Political Science ( Civics ) Chapter 3 Electoral Politics Notes

ClassClass 9
Chapter Chapter 3
Chapter NameElectoral Politics
CategoryClass 9 Civics Notes

Electoral politics class 9 notes, class 9 civics chapter 3 notes. In Chapter 3 of Class 9 Civics, you will understand how the representatives are elected. The chapter begins with the topic of why elections are necessary and useful in a democracy. 

Class 9 Political Science ( Civics ) Chapter 3 Electoral Politics Notes

📚 Chapter = 3 📚
💠 Electoral Politics 💠

❇️ Why do we need elections?

We can choose who will make laws for them.

We can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.

We can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law making.

❇️ Elections :-

🔹 Elections are an integral part of democracy because it is through elections that people choose their representatives so that the government is formed and the rest of the work is done.  Elections in India are no less than a festival.

❇️ General Election :-

🔹 Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days. This is called a general election. 

❇️ By-Election :-

🔹 Sometimes election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by-election.

❇️ What makes an election democratic?

Everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value. 

Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections. 

Elections must be held regularly. 

The candidate preferred by the people should get elected. 

Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.

❇️ It is good to have political competition?

In a democracy political leaders know what is good for the people. It motivates them to serve the people. 

Regular electoral competition provides an initiative to political parties and leaders. 

Leaders realize that if they work for people they would become popular and their chance to win would increase.

❇️ Demerits of electoral competitions :-

It creates a sense of disunity and ‘factionalism’ in every locality. 

Political parties and leaders often level allegations against one another. 

Parties and candidates often use dirty tricks to win elections. 

Pressure to win electoral fights does not allow sensible long-term policies to be formulated. 

In respect of the above demerits or unhealthy competition some good people who may wish to serve the country do not enter this arena.

❇️ Merits of Electoral Competition :-

Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders.

If they can satisfy voters with their work, they will be able to win again.

Even if a political party is motivated only by the desire to be in power, it will be compelled to serve the people.

This shows the real intention of the political parties.

It gives the option to the voters to choose from the best.

❇️ The minimum conditions of a democratic election :-

Everyone should have one vote with equal weightage.

Parties should offer some real choices to the voters.

Elections must be held regularly.

The candidate preferred by the people should get elected. 

Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.

❇️ Election Process :-

  • Election announcement.
  • selection of candidates.
  • filling nomination form.
  • allotment of election symbols.
  • Issuance of election manifesto by political parties.
  • election campaign.
  • vote.
  • Counting of votes.
  • Declaration of Results.

❇️ What is our system of elections? 

🔹 In India, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (Assembly) elections are held regularly after every five years.

🔹 Elections are held regularly after every five years for Lok Sabha or Lower house of the Parliament and Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly), Panchayats, municipalities etc.

❇️ Process of Election in India :-

  • Formation of constituencies.
  • Preparation of Voters’ list.
  • Declaration of date of Polling.
  • Filling of Nominations.
  • Scrutiny of Nominations.
  • Withdrawal of Nominations.
  • Election Campaign.
  • Polling (Election Day)
  • Re – Polling ( If required)
  • Counting of Votes and Declaration of Results.

❇️ Electoral Constituency :-

🔹 India is divided into different areas for the purpose of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. The voters living in an area elect one representative.

❇️ Electoral constituencies :-

🔹 The country is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. 

🔹 E.g. :- our country is divided into 543 Lok Sabha constituencies. The same principle applies for State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Municipalities.

❇️ Reserved Constituencies :- 

🔹 There are some seats where only people of certain communities/castes can contest for elections. These are called reserved constituencies. 

🔹 For example :- 84 seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes (SC) and 47 for the Scheduled Tribes (ST) in the Lok Sabha.

❇️ Voters’ List :-

🔹 This is a list of those who are eligible to vote. It is prepared much before the election. This is officially called the Electoral Roll and is commonly known as the Voters’ List.

❇️ Universal adult franchise :-

🔹 Universal adult franchise means all the citizens aged 18 years and above can vote in the elections.

❇️ Nomination of candidates :-

🔹 Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbol and support. Every person who wishes to contest an election has to fill a ‘nomination form’ and give some money as ‘security deposit’.

❇️ Election Campaign :-

🔹 The main purpose of election is to give people a chance to choose their representatives. So, they need to know who is a better representative and which party will make a better government. 

🔹 This is what happens during election campaigns. The candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilize their supporters.

❇️ Polling and counting of votes :-

🔹 The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote. That day is usually called the election day. Nowadays Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) are used to record votes.

🔹 In a general election, usually the counting of votes in all the constituencies takes place at the same time, on the same day. Within a few hours of counting, all the results are declared and it becomes clear as to who will form the next government.

❇️ Election Commission :-

🔹 In our country, elections are conducted by an independent and very powerful Election Commission (EC). The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President of India.

❇️ Power and Functions of the Election Commission of India :-

EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results. 

It implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it. 

During the election period, the Election Commission can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuse of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials. 

When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the Election Commission and not the government.

❇️ Challenges to free and fair elections :-

Candidates and parties with a lot of money enjoy a big advantage over smaller parties.

Sometimes candidates with criminal connection get a chance to contest elections. 

Some families tend to dominate political parties. 

Citizens get very little choice. 

Smaller parties and independents suffer a huge disadvantage. 

❇️ Unfair practices in elections :-

Inclusion of false names and exclusion of genuine names in the voters’ list.

Misuse of government facilities and officials by the ruling party.

Excessive use of money by rich candidates and big parties.

Intimidation of voters and rigging on the polling day.

❇️ Model Code Conduct :-

🔹 All the candidates and their parties follow the Model Code of Conduct for election campaigns. 

🔹 According to this, Once elections are announced no party or candidate can :-

Use any place of worship for election propaganda.

Use government vehicles, aircrafts and officials for elections; and 

Ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities. 

❇️ Slogans :-

🔹 Slogans are very important during election campaigns. Political Parties try to attract the attention of people through slogans. 

❇️ successful slogans :-

🔹 Some of the successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections are :-

  • Indira Gandhi – Garibi Hatao (Remove poverty )
  • Jayaprakash Narayan – Save Democracy
  • Left Front – Land to the Tiller
  • N. T. Rama Rao – Protect the Self-Respect of the Telugus
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